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NOVEMBER 1999 

ISSUE #469 

USA $3.95 

CANADA $4.95 



Adventure 
Blueprint: 
Planning 
Your Own 
DXpeditioi 



HK0/W4DC 



All-Ban 

Steerable 

Horizontal 



Easy-Build 
Transceiver 



Tester 



More 
History of 
Ham Radio 





DXing and you — page 14 



ii urn mi mm hi iui| 



1 1 




SYNTHESIZED VHF&UHF 
EXCITER & RECEIVER MODULES 



Exciters and Receivers provide high quality nbfm 
ar»d fsk operation. Features include: 

• Dip switch frequency selection. 

■ Exceptional modulation for voice and ctcss. 

• Very /o w noise syn thesizer for rep eater servic e. 

• Direct frn for data up to 9600 baud. 

• TCXO for tight frequency accuracy in wide 
range of environmental conditions. 

■ Next day shipping. No wait for crystals. 

EXCITERS; 

Rated for continuous duty, 2-3W output 

T301 VHF Exciter: for various bands 139-174MHz h 
216*226 MHz. 

• Kit (him bands on^ r . . % 1 09 (TCXO option $40) 

• Wired/tested, ind TCXO 1189 

T3G4 UHF Exciter various 
bands 40CM70 MHz. 

* Kit (440-4*0 hwm b3«J w*r) 

ind TCXO ...$149 t 

• Wi red/tested... $1B9 

RECEIVERS: 

Very sensitive -0.2uV. 

Superb selectivity, >1QOdB down at ±12 kHz, best 

available anywhere, flutter-proof squelch. 

R3G1 VHF Receiver: various bands 139-174MHZ, 
216^226 MHz. 

■ Kit {ham bands only) .Only $139 (TCXO option 5-10) 

• Wlredrtested .,.$209 ^_ 
{Includes TCXO) 

R304 UHF Receiver: 
various bands 400-470MHz 

* Kit (MtMSGnam tand only) 

ind TCXO ...$179 

• VWed/tested...$209 



TRADITIONAL CRYSTAL CONTROLLED 
VHF & UHF FM EXCITERS & RECEIVERS 



FM EXCITERS: 2W output, continuous duty. 

• TA51: for 6M.2M, 220 MHz kit $99, w/t $169 

• TA451: for 420-475 MHz kit $99, w/t $169 

■ TA901: for 902-926 MHz. (Q.5W out) wtt$169 

VHF & UHF POWER AMPLIFIERS, 

Output levels from 10W to 100W Starting at $99 

FM RECEIVERS: 

• R100 VHF FM RCVR, For 46-54, 72-76 p 140-175, or 
216-225 MHz kit $129, w/t $189 

• R144 RCVR, Like R100. for ZM, wtth helical 
resonator m front end.... .kit $159, w/t $219 

• R451 FM RCVR, tor 420-475 MHz. Similar to R100 
above, kit $129. w/t $169. 

• R901 FM RCVR, &Q2-92@MKz $159, w/t $219 



RECEIVING CONVERTERS 



No need to spend thousands on 
new transceivers for each band! 

• Convert vhf and uhf signals 
to & from 10M. 

» Even rf you don't have a 10M rig, you can pick up 
very good used xmtrs & revrs for next to nothing. 

• Receiving converters (shown above) available for 
various segments of 6M. 2M, 220. and 432 MHz. 

• Rcvg Conv Kits from $49, wired/tested units only $99 

it 




LOW NOISE RECEIVER PREAMPS 



LNY-{ ) ECONOMY 
PREAMP 

ONLY $29rw&t 

• Miniature MOSFET Preamp. 

• Low noise figure 

• RCA jacks allow easy 
connection inside radios 

• Avaiiabte for various bands 
from 26 to 450 MHz, 



LNP-( ) PRESELECTOR 

ONLY $39/w&t 

• Eliminate in termed! 
■ Low noise preamp 
- Sharp 3-secti on filter 

• Available for bands from 
137 to 170 MHz 



Get more features for your dollar with our 

REP-200 REPEATER 







LNG-{ ) GaAs FET 
PREAMP 

STILL ONLY $59 t wired/tested 

• Make your friends sick with envy! 
Work stations they don't even know 
are there. 

• Install one at the antenna and 
overcome coax losses. 

Available for 28-30, 46-56, 137-152, 152-172, 210- 
230, 400-470, and 600-960 MHz bands. 



SUBAUDIBLE TOME ENCODER/DECODER 



Access all your favorite 

closed repeaters! 
• Encodes all standard CTCSS 
tones with crystal accuracy and 
convenient DIP switch selection. 

• Decoder can be used to mute receive audio and is 
optimized for irtstaflation in repeaters to provide closed 
access High pass filter gets rid of annoying cevr buzz 

■ TD-5 CTCSS Encoder/Decoder Kit „„«„ now only $29 

• TD-5 CTCSS Encoder/Decoder Wired/tested $49 





■:■■ 


f *■ i> *i4iiipar»» Murhrc* 


■• 


3 —* m. mm ■ » •— 



WEATHER FAX RECEIVER 



Join the fun. Get striking 
images directly from the 
weather satel I rio si 

A very sensitive wideband fm 
receiver optimized for NOAA 
APT & Russian Meteor weather fax on the 137MHz band 

Covers all 5 satellite channels Scanner circuit & recorder 
control allow you to automatically capture signals as 
satellites pass overhead, even while away from home 

See product review wrtn actual satellite pictures in June 
1999 QST, along wtth info on software and antennas 

■ R139 Receiver Kit less case ... $159 

- R13-9 Receiver Kfl with case and AC power adapter $189 

■ R 1 39 Receiver w/t m case wilfi AC power adapter $233 

■ Internal PC Demodulator Board & Imaging Software $289 
• Turnstile Antenna , _..$119 

■ Weather Satellite Handbook „ $20 




WWV RECEIVER 



• Transmitting converters for 
2M 432 MHz 

* Kits only $89 vhf or $99 uhf 
■ Power amplifiers up to 50W. 




■rt'W¥ '•* «('.1M» 






& 



Get time & frequency checks 

without buying mult I band hi 

revr. Hear solar activity reports 

affecting radio propagation. 

Very sensitive and selective 

crystal controlled supernet. dedicated to listening to WWV 

on 10 MHz, Performance rivals the most expensive revrs. 

• RWWV RcvrfciLPCeon* „ $59 

• RWVW Rcvr kit with cabl spfcr, & l2Vdc adapter $89 

• RWWV Rcvr wA in cact wtfi spfcrl adapter TT . r ,$129 



A microprocessor-controlled repeater with 

autopatch and many versatile dtmf remote 

control features at less than you might pay for a 

bare bones repeater or controller alone! 




" «fP*H flJM, 



Z"-^r> m m ' 



■ kit stilt only $1 095 

• factory assembled stiil onty $1295 

S0-S4. U3-1T4. 213^233. 420-475 MHz {9G2-92/S MH£ sljghlly higher.) 
•■ FCC type «£ttp4«d far commertiit Sftrwoo m 150 A 450 MHz bands. 

Digital Voice Recorder Option, Allows message up 
to 20 sec. to be remotely recorded off the air. Play 
back at user request by DTMF command, or as a 
periodical voice id or both. Great for making club 
announcements! onry $100 + 

REP-2O0C Economy Repeater. Real* voice ID t no 
dtmf or autopatch Kit only $795, w&t $1195 

REP-200N Repeater. Without controller so you can 
use your own „„ Kit only $695, w&t $995. 



You'll KICK Yourself 

If You Build a Repeater 

Without Checking Out Our Catalog First! 



Hamtronics has the world's most 
complete line of modules for 
making repeater?. In addition to 
exciters, pa's, and receivers, we 
offer the following controllers. 

COR-3- Inexpensive, flexible COR module with timers. 
courtesy beep, audio mixer, ...... only $49/kit, $79 wft. 

CW1D. Traditional diode matnx lO'er kit only $59. 

CWIO-2. Eprom-cofTtrolted I O'er only $54/kit, $73 wh\. 

DVR'1. Record your own voice up to 20 sec For voice id 

or playing dub announcements „„ $S9/kit $99 w/t 




COR -4- Complete COR and CWID all on one board ID in 
eprom. Low power CMOS only $99flut, $149 w/t 

COR -6. COR wtth real- voice Id, Low power CMOS, non- 
volatile memory, „ t t ,kit only S99 h wrt only $149. 

COR-S. uP controller with autopatch , reverse ap, phone 
remote control, lots of DTMF control functions, all on one 
board, as used \t\ REP-200 Repeater. ,. ...$379 w/t 

AP-3. Repeater autopatch, reverse autopatch, phone line 
remote control. Use with T|>2 kit$B9. 

TD*2. Four-digit DTMF decoder/controller. Five latching 
OTKrff functions, loll call restnetor. w „„. kit $79. 

TD-4. DTMF controller as above except one on-ofT function 
and n<j toll call restnetor. Can also use for seJectrve caifing; 
mute speaker until someone pages you kit $49. 




WEATHER ALERT RECEIVER 



A sensitive and selective 
professional grade receiver to 
monitor critical NOAA weather 
broadcasts. Good reception 
even at distances of 70 miles or 
more with suitable antenna. No 
comparison with ordinary consumer radios! 

Automatic mode provides storm watch, alerting you by 
unmutlng receiver and providing an output to trip remote 
equipment when an alert tone is broadcast. Crystal 
controlled for accuracy: ail 7 channels (162.40 to 162.55). 

Buy just the receiver peb module in kit form or buy the kit 
with an attractive metal cabinet, AC power adapter, and 
tHiitt-m s peaker Also a va i table factory wired and tested 

RWX Rcvr kit PCB only m „|79 

RWX Rcvr kit with cabinet, speaker, & AC adapter $99 

RWX Rcvr wired/tested in cabinet vith Speaker & adapter ^ $139 



Buy at low, factorydirect net prices and save! 

For complete info, call or write for complete catalog. 

Order by mail, fax, email, or phone <9-i2< 15 Qaat«rn timet 

Min. $6 S&H Charge for V lb. plus add I weight & insurance. 

Use Visa, MC, Discover, check, or UPS C.O.D, 




See SPECIAL OFFERS and view 
complete catalog on our web site: 

vvww.hamtronics.com 

email: jv@hamtromcsxom 



Our 38* Year 



amironics, mc 

65-D Moul Rd; Hilton NY 14468-9535 
Phone 716-392-9430 



/}} ASTRON y Autry Irvine, UA 92b1 a 
-'— " ' h (-$&gf " u (949) 458-7277 • (949) 458-0826 




® <© 



UST£D 
7T» 



EiS*7165 



£t5J**5 



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C€ 




MODEL SS-10TK 







...POWER ON WITH ASTRON 



SWITCHING POWER SUPPLIES... 



SPECIAL FEATURES: 

• HIGH EFFICIENCY SWITCHING TECHNOLOGY 
SPECIFICALLY FILTERED FOR USE WITH 
COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT, FOR ALL 
FREQUENCIES INCLUDING HE 

- HEAVY DUTY DESIGN 

- LOW PROFILE, LIGHTWEIGHT PACKAGE 

- EMI FILTER 

> MEETS FCC CUSS B 



PROTECTION FEATURES: 
- CURRENT LIMITING 

• OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION 

• FUSE PROTECTION, 

• OVER TEMPERATURE SHUTDOWN 



SPECIFICATIONS: 

INPUT VOLTAGE: 



OUTPUT VOLTAGE: 



115 VAC 50/60 HZ 
OR 220 VAC 50/60HZ 
SWITCH SELECTABLE 
13.8VDC 



MODEL SS-12IF 




MODELSS-18 




MODEL SS-25M 



AVAILABLE WITH THE FOLLOWING APPROVALS: UL, CUL, CEJUV. 



DESKTOP SWITCHING POWER SUPPLIES 

MODEL CONT. <Amps) 

SS-10 7 

SS42 10 

SS-T8 15 

SS-25 20 

SS-30 25 



ICS 


SIZE (inches) 


Wl.(lbs.) 


TO 


1 ix6x9 


3.2 


12 


1%x6x9 


34 


is 


1Hx6x9 


3.6 


25 


2>. x 7 x 9% 


42 


30 


3fc x 7 x 9ft 


50 



DESKTOP SWITCHING POWER SUPPLIES WITH VOLT AND AMP METERS 
MODEL CONT (Amps) ICS SIZE (Inches) 

SS25M* 20 25 2tt*?*SK 

SS-30M T 25 30 3K x 7 x 9K 



Wt.flbs.) 
4.2 
5,0 




MODEL SRM-30 



RACKMOUNT SWrTCHING POWER SUPPLIES 

MODEL CONT. (Amps) 

SRM-25 20 

SRM-30 25 

WITH SEPARATE VOLT & AMP METERS 

MODEL CONT, (Amps) 

SRM-25M 20 

SRM4QM 25 



ICS 
26 
30 



ICS 

25 

30 



SIZE (inches) 

3Hx19xS 

3KX19X9H 



SIZE (Inches) 
FAX 1 9 x 9^/6 

3 h /*xT9x&H 



Wqibs.) 
65 
7.0 



Wt.(lbs.) 
6,5 

7 + 




2 ea SWITCHING POWER SUPPLIES ON ONE RACK PANEL 

MODEL CONT. (Amps) ICS 

SRM'25-2 £0 25 

SRM'30-2 25 30 



WITH SEPARATE VOLT & AMP METERS 

MODEL CONT. (Amps) 

SRM-25M-2 20 

SHM-30M~2 25 



ICS 

25 

30 



SIZE (inches) 
3V; x 1 9 x 9tf 
3ftx19x9H 



SIZE (incites) 
3.x 19x9% 
3.x 19x9% 



WL(lbs.) 
10,5 
11.0 



Wt.flbs,) 
10.5 
11.0 



MODEL SRM-30M-2 






ffiSRH 



MODEL SS-12SM-GTX 




MODEL SS-1QEFJ-98 



CUSTOM POWER SUPPLIES FOP RADIOS BELOW 

EF JOHNSON AVENGER GX-MC41 

EF JOHNSON AVENGER GX-MC42 

EF JOHNSON GT-MLB1 

EF JOHNSON GT-ML83 

EF JOHNSON 0800 SERIES 

GE MARC SERIES 

GE MONOGRAM SERIES & MAXON SM-40QQ SERIES 

ICOM 1C-F11020 & IC-F2020 

KENWOOD TK760. 762, 840. 860. 940. 941 

KENWOOD TK76CR 762H 

MOTOROLA LOW POWER SM50, SM120. & GTX 

MOTOROLA HIGH POWER SM50. SMI 20, &. GTX 

MOTOROLA RADWS & GM 300 

MOTOROLA RADtUS & GM 300 

MOTOROLA RADIUS & GM 300 

UNfOEN SMH1525, SMU4525 

VERTEX — FTL1 011, FT- 1 011, FT-2011, FT-7011 



NEW SWITCHING MODELS 

SS^1QGX r SS-12GX 

SS-18GX 

SS-12EFJ 

SS-18EFJ 

SS-10-EFJ-98. SS-n2-EFJ^8, SS-18-EFJ-98 

SS-12MC 

SS-10MG. SS-12MG 

SS-101F, SS-121F 

SS-10TK 

SS-12TKOTSS-18TK 

SS-1DSMGTX 

SS-10SMGTX, SS-12SMGTX, SS^aSM'GTX 

SS-1QFIA 

SS-12RA 

SS-18RA 

SS-10SMU. SS~12SMU f SS-1SSMU 

SS-10V, SS-12V. SS-18V 



ICS - tolermiltefit Communication Service 



MFJ Switching Power Supplies 

Power your HF transceiver, 2 meter/440 MHz mobile/base and accessories 
with these new 25 or 45 Amp MFJ MightyLite™ Switching Power Supplies! 
No RF hash . . , Super lightweight . . . Super small . . . Volt/Amp Meters . . . 



MFJ's new adjustable voltage switch- 
ing power supplies do it all! Power your 
HF or 2M/440 MHz radio and accessories, 

MFJ's Mighty Li te$ }V are so light and 
small you can cany them in the palm of 
your hand! Take them with you anywhere. 

No more picking up and hauling around 
heavy, bulky supplies that can give you a 
painful backache, pulled muscle or hernia, 

MFJ's 25 Amp MightyLile™ weighs 
just 3.7 lbs. -- that's 5 times lighter than an 
equivalent conventional power supply, 
MFJ's 45 Amp is even more dramatic — 8 
times lighter and weighs just 5.5 pounds! 

No RF hash! 

These babies are clean . , . Your bud- 
dies won't hear any RF hash on your sig- 
nal! None in your receiver either! 

Some competing switching power sup- 
plies generate objectionable RF hash in 
your transmitted and received signal. 

These super clean MFJ Mighty Lites™ 
meet all FCC Class B regulations. 

Low Ripple . . . Highly Regulated 

Less than 35 mV peak-to-peak ripple 
under 25 or 45 amp full load. Load regula- 
tion is better than 1,5% under full load. 

Fully Protected 

You won't bum up our power supplies! 




No RF Hash! **~ MFM225MV 

25 Amp 

$ 1 49 95 

plus s&h 

MF3-4245MV 

45 Amp 

$ 199 

plus s&h 

They are fully protected with Over Voltage 
and Cher Current protection circuits. 

Worldwide Versatility 

MFJ Mighty Lites*' ' can be used any- 
where in the world! They have switchable 
AC input voltage and work from 85 to 135 
VAC or 170 to 260 VAC. Replaceable fuse. 
MightyLites™ . * . Mighty Features 

Front-panel control lets you vary out- 
put from 9 to 1 5 Volts DC, 

Front-panel has easy access five- way 
binding posts for heavy duty use and ciga- 
rette lighter socket for mobile accessories. 
MFJ-4245MV has two sets of quick-con- 
nects on the rear for accessories. 

Brightly illuminated 3 inch meters let 
you monitor load voltage and current. 

A whisper quiet internal fan efficiently 



No RF Hash! 




cools your power supply for long life. 
Two models to choose from • . • 

MFJ-4225MV, SI 49,95, 25 Amps 
maximum or 22 Amps continuous. Weighs 
3.7 pounds. Measures 5 1 MWjt4V:Hx6D in. 

MFJ-4245MY. SI 99.95. 45 Amps 
maximum or 40 Amps continuous. Weighs 
5.5 pounds. Measures "^/2Wx4 3 /4Hx9D in. 



,1M 



NEW! 25 Amp Mighty Lite 

Super light, super ^FI-41^ 
compact switching kaim 

power supply delivers $11 flO 95 
25 Amps maximum/22 Jf^ h 
Amps continuous at 

13.8 Volts DC, Low ripple, highly regulated, N& 
RF Hash I Five-way binding posts for high current. 
Quick connects For accessories, Over voltage cur- 
rent protection. 1 1 or 220 VAC operation. Meets 
FCC Class B rees. 3,5 lbs. 5 } \\\1 .HxlOV*D in. 




Ml J 35/30 Amp Adjustable Regulated DC Power Supply 

Massive 19.2 pound transformer . • • No RF hash . • * Adjustable 1 to 14 VDC '. . . 




MFM035MV 



ering HF or 2 Meter 440 MHz 
transc eive r ac cessories, 

A massive 19,2 pound transformer 
makes this power supply super heavy duty! 
It delivers 35 amps maximum and 30 amps 
continuous without even flexing its mus- 
cles. Plugs into any 1 10 VAC wall outlet 

Ifs highly regulated with load regula- 
tion better than 1%, Ripple voltage is less 
than 30 mV. No RF hash — it's super clean! 

Fully protected — has over voltage pro- 
tection. Void back short circuit protection 
and over-temperature protection. 



You gel front panel adjustable voltage 
from I to 14 VDC with a convenient detent 
set at 1 3*8 VDC, A pair of front-panel 
meters let you monitor voltage and current. 

Three sets of output terminals include a 
pair of heavy duty five-way binding posts 
for 1IF/VHF radios, two pairs of quick-con- 
nects for accessories and a covered ciga- 
rette lighter socket for mobile accessories. 

A front-panel fuse holder makes fuse 
replacement easy. Whisper quiet fan speed 
increases as load current increases — keeps 
components cool. 9 L /:Wx6Hx9-^D inches. 



$ m J|A95 MFJ's heavy duty 

A "f jf conventional power sup- 
plus s&h ply is excellent for pow- 

MFJ High Current Multiple DC Power Outlets 

Power two HF/VHF transceivers and six or more accessories from your 12 VDC power supply 




MFM ^ and six or more accessories 
S^F^^^S from your transceiver's main 12 

plus s&h 
MFMJJ6 



ricinf« 

MFJ- 1117 

$ 44 95 

MFJ-l 11 8,574.95, This is pluss&h 
MFJ's most versatile and highest current 
Deluxe Multiple DC Power Outlet. Lets 
you power two HF and or VHF transceivers 




VDC supply. 

Two pairs of super heavy 
^ duty 30 amp 5-way binding 

*^m^m posts connect your transceivers . 
j^ % | Each pair is fused and RF 
pmss&n bypassed Handles 35 Amps 

MFJ-U 12 total. Six pairs of heavy duty, RF 

5^j^ f 95 bypassed 5-way binding posts 

^7 ^ . let you power your accessories, 
piu* s&n Thcy handle , 5 Amps lota[ m 

protected bv a master fuse and have an 
OX OFF switch with "ON" LED indicator. 
Built-in 0-25 VDC voltmeter. Six feet 
super heavy duty eight gauge color- 
coded cable with ring tongue terminals 
Binding posts are spaced for standard 
dual banana plugs. Heavy duty alu- 
minum construction. 12Vix2V*x2 ! /j in. 



MFJ-l 1 1 6, $49,95. Similar to MFJ- 
1118, No 30 amp posts. Has 'ON" LED 
and 0-25 VDC voltmeter, 15 amps total. 

MFJ-l 1 12, $34.95. Similar to MFJ- 
1116, No on/off switch, LED, meter, fuse. 

NEW! MFJ-l 11 7, $54.95. For power- 
ing four I IF /VHF radios (two at 35 Amps 
each and two at 35 Amps combined) simul- 
taneously. Tiny 8x2x3 inches. 

Free MFJ Catalog 

and Searest Dealer. . . 800-64^-1800 
http://wwn\m jjenterprises.com 

* 1 Year No Matter What" warranty ■ 30 day money 
back guarantee (less s h) on orders direct from MFJ 

MFJ ENTERPRISES, INC. 
Box 494, Miss, State, MS 39762 
(662) 323-5869; 8-4*ocst t M«L-Fn 
FAX: (662) 323-6551; Add %/h 
Tech Help: (662) 323 : 0549 

Pnces flFfrf ipecijiratiani subject Jti thangt I l 1 i J J /WfJ MfJ Enterprises, Inc. 






All are protected by MFJ's famous No Matter What™ one year limited warranty. 



1 THE TEAM 

El Supremo & Founder 
Wayne Green W2NSD/1 

Associate Publisher 
f. I. Marion 

Associate Technical Editor 
Larry Antonuk WB9RRT 

Nitty Gritty Stuff 
J. Clayton Burnett 
Priscilla Gauvin 
Joyce Sawteile 

Contributing Culprits 
Bill Brown WB8ELK 
Make Bryce WB8VGE 
Joseph E, Carr K4IPV 
Michael GelerKBIUM 
Jim Gray W1XU/7 
Jack Heller KB7NO 
Chuck Houghton WB61GP 
Dr. Marc leavey WA3AJR 
Andy MacAWster W5ACM 
Dave Milier NZ9E 
Joe Moell K0OV 
Steve Nowak KEBYN/5 
Carole Perry WB2MGP 

Advertising Sales 
Frances Hyvarinen 
Roger Smcih 
603-924-0058 
800-274-7373 
Fax: 603-924-8613 

Circulation 
Linda Cough Ian 

Data Entry & Other Stuff 
Christine Aubert 
Norman Marion 

Business Office 

EuHorial - Advertising - QrcutatJcri 

Feedback - Product Reviews 

73 Amateur Radio Today Magazine 

70 Hancock Rd. 

Peterborough NH 03458-1107 

603-924-0058 

Fax:603-924-8613 

Reprints: S3 per article 
Back issues: $5 each 

Prmted In the USA 



Manuscripts: Contributions for 
possible publication are most 
welcome. We'll do trie best we can to 
return anything you request but we 
assume no responsibifrty for loss 
or damage Payment lor submitted 
articles will be made after publication 
Please submit both a disk and a 
hard copy of your article [IBM (ok) 
or Mac (preferred} formats], carefully 
checked drawings and schematics, 
and the clearest, best locused and 
lighted photos you can manage "How 
to write for 7T guidelines are available 
on iBquest US citizens, ptease 
include your Social Security number 
with submitted manuscripts so we can 
sub mil it to you know who, 




NOVEMBER 1999 
ISSUE #469 



Amateur 
Radio Today 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 



FEATURES 

1 Need a UHF Dipper? — W6WTU 

Part 2: Coupling to an outside environment 

1 4 Planning a DXpedition — W4DC 

Here's what to do if you take Wayne's advice ... 

18 Why Not ii-Morse? — VE2MHZ 
Anamustng way to preserve your Morse code. 

1 9 Building a Better Collins — W2CQM 

Add this St solid state replacement part to your 30S1. 

24 Isotron Notes — AD1 B 

SknpJe tips straight from the Hart. 

26 Bask; Transceiver Tester — WB9YBM 

This fancy spin on some common components is a good 
beginner's project. 

28 Your Batteries Ready for Y2K? — N7MGT 

Electrifying tidb/te even you ofd-timers don 1 know. 

35 No Bum Steer — W6US 

Maximize your loop's performance the easy way. 

37 Secrets of Transmission Lines — KE2QJ 

Part 4: Traveling waves and some thought experiments. 

41 The History of Ham Radio — W9C1 

PartS: 192Q-2t. 



DEPARTMENTS 



WB61GP 


46 


Above & Beyond 




49 


Ad Index 




64 


Barter n' Buy 




55 


Calendar 


N0UR 


60 


Cartoon 


KB7NO 


52 


The Digital Port 




6 


Letters 


W2NSD/1 


4 


Never Say Die 




46 


New Products 


KE8YN/4 


50 


On the Go 


W1XU/7 


60 


Propagation 


WB6VGE 


51 


QRP 




8 


QRX 




63 


Radio Bookshop 




6 


Updates 



Contest Winners 

Page 62 



REVIEW 



Wch Page 
www, waynegreen.com 



32 A Big Look at Small Wonders' WM-20 — AC4HF 

This SSB transceiver kit is fun to build and works welt. 



E-Mail 

design73@aol.cnm 



On the cover: DXing and you meet up on page 14, We are always looking for interesting articles 
and cover photos — with or without each other. Your photo could be mentioned in this space next 
month, and our check could be on its way to you! You couldn't use a little extra cash? 



Feedback: Any circuit works better with feedback, so please take the time to report on 
how much you like, hate T or don T t care one way or the other about the articles and 
columns in this issue. G = great!, O = okay, and U = ugh. The G's and O's will be 
continued. Enough U f s and it's Silent Keysville. Hey, this is your communications 
medium, so don't just sit there scratching your. ..er... head. FYI: Feedback "number 11 is 
usually the page number on which the article or column starts. 



73 Amateur Radio Today {ISSN T052-2522) is published monthly by 73 Magazine, 70 N202, Peterborough NH 
03458-1107. The enlire contents C>1999 by 73 Magazine. No pari of this publication Marchbe reproduced 
without written permission of the publisher, which is not all that difficult to get. The subscription rate is: one 
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to 73 What? All of your ham friends are already subscribers? Donate a subscription jo your local school library? 



^^^ 



Number 1 on your Feedback card 



Neuer srv die 



Wayne Green W2NSD/1 



w2nsd@aol.com 



Anniversary 

I got a note from Dave 
Sumner KIZZ, complete with 
a commemorative 60-year 
ARRL membership pin 10 
wear on my hamfest hat* 
Now, if I can hold to my new 
diet and keep my body in 
good shape, and if amateur 
radio and the League are still 
around in 2009, I'll have a 
70-year pin for my hat. Plus a 
commemorative plaque for 
my shack wall. Dave was 
kind enough to drive up to de- 
liver my 60-year plaque in 
person! 

It's kind of nice being a liv- 
ing link with the past. I was 
there in the "good old days*" 
so I can explain to newcom- 
ers what things were really 
like 60 years ago — back in 
the pre- WWII days. Well, the 
war actually got started in 
Europe on my birthday, Sep- 
tember 3, 1938, when I was 
16 and having a ball on 40 
CW. Yeah, I really did make 
CW contacts. Then I discov- 
ered phone and had even 
more fun on 160 and 2-1/2 
meter phone. Then came Pearl 
Harbor and my enlisting in 
the Navy as an electronic 
technician for four years, 
complete with service on the 
USS Drum (now on display 
in Mobile AL) from 1943-45. 
I was on the air the day we 
were closed down for the war, 
and back on the day the\ 
opened the 2-1/2 meter band 
in December 1945, four years 
later. And I've been on the air 
having fun ever since. 

The Odds 

A little item in Time caught 
my eye. Well, it mentioned 
cancer and nursing homes. It 

4 73 Amateur Radio Today • November 1999 



seems that a recent study 
showed that 40% of the can- 
cer patients in nursing homes 
get too little or no pain medi- 
cation. Not even aspirin! I 
don't know if you've had a 
family member who died of 
cancer, but when I lived in 
Brooklyn the guy across the 
street did and his screams of 
pain could be heard day and 
night until he finally died. 

This is* of course, of little 
importance to you if you are 
not ever going to (a) live in a 
nursing home and (b) get can- 
cer. Well, unless you change 
your lifestyle significantly, 
your odds are not good. 
Around 60% of our elderly 
are ending their days in nurs- 
ing homes, where there is 
nothing to do and the food 
sucks. Add to that the 40% 
who will get cancer (heading 
toward 50% as we continue to 
smoke and sugar ourselves to 
early deaths), and you are 
playing against serious odds. 

How come all the pain? 
Well, two things. First, there's 
the cost of drugs, and second, 
the medical police and the 
drug enforcement people are 
out there looking for any doc- 
tor who's been prescribing 
painkillers, Several have lost 
their licenses just through 
prescribing pain killing drugs 
for terminal cancer patients. 

Both cancer and a nursing 
home are avoidable if you 
stop doing bad things to your 
body. Oh, to hell with the fat, 
the nursing homes, and the 
incredible pain of cancer, pass 
me another doughnut. Right? 

The Other Shoe 

Since the Kenneth Starr 
investigation started with 
Whitewater, even a not very 




■ffl-jfo'? ■ 



perceptive person might won- 
der how come the released 
Starr report didn't mention 
this. This will, I suspect, be 
the other shoe to drop. Be- 
tween the leaks and White 
House spinmeistcrs, anyone 
can be forgiven for being con- 
fused about the Whitewater 
mess. Maybe I can clarify it 
for you. 

This all started back in Ar- 
kansas, where the Clintons 
were partners with Jim and 
Susan McDougal in the 
Whitewater Development Cor- 
poration. The accounts were 
kept in the Madison Guaran- 
tee Savings & Loan, run by 
Jim McDougal, with Hillary 
Clinton as an attorney. When 
Federal bank examiners 
checked Madison, they testi- 
fied that it was a "corrupt in- 
stitution that routed millions 
of dollars to politically con- 
nected Arkansans." The re- 
port cited wire fraud, illegal 
campaign contributions, em- 
bezzlement, money launder- 
ing, falsification of loan 
records and board minutes, 
etc. The FDIC had to cover 
over $60 million that was 
looted. 

Pan of the money stolen by 
McDougal and Hillary went 
right into Bill Clinton's cam- 
paign account. 

The reason a special pros- 
ecutor had to be called in 
was the obstruction of inves- 
tigations at both the state and 
federal levels by the Clintons, 
the same pattern we've seen re- 
peated with Bill's sex scandals. 

I Don't Believe ... 

Several readers recom- 
mended I read Mally Cox- 
Chapman's The Case For 
Heaven — Near Death Expe- 



riences as Evidence of the Af- 
terlife (Putnam's Sons, 1995, 
ISBN 0-399-14024-7, 203pp., 
$20), Mally has interviewed 
hundreds of people about their 
near-death visit to heaven, and 
the stories they tell have a 
compelling similarity. Other 
than being more expensive 
and a little slow going, the 
stories are not much different 
from those in a number of 
other "light" books I've read 

Yes, I also read The Skepti- 
cal Inquirer, which stead- 
fastly refuses to accept the 
paranormal, reincarnation, past 
lives, spoon bending, psi, 
clairvoyance, psychokinesis, 
UFOs, contactees, Roswell, 
cold fusion, and so on, I have 
no problem with skepticism, 
as long as it isn't pathologi- 
cal. Well, the Inquirer has its 
"I don't believe* 1 shtick, 
which is just as much a belief 
as in UFOs or any of the orga- 
nized commercial religions. 

While I don't approach 
anomalies as a skeptic, I am 
not an easy convert, I want to 
see convincing evidence. And 
as I read well -researched 
books and talk with people 
who have obviously done 
their homework, I tend to 
give credence to their views. 

Naturally, skeptics believe 
that spoon bending is bunk. 
But only if the skeptic hasn't 
done much research. One of 
the books in my wisdom 
guide is Michael Creighton's 
Travels. It's a fascinating 
book. Nonfictkm. He tells 
about his years in medical 
school. He also tells about his 
skeptical approach to auras 
and spoon bending, and his 
amazing experiences. It's a 
pocket book, so don't be so 
chintzy. Read it and then tell 
me he's full of baloney. Dare. 

Are you going through life 
with *l don't believe .„* 
blinders on? 

Once I have managed to 
pry your blinders open a tad, 
maybe I can get you to start 
reading about the mysteries 
of water, magnetism, and a 
host of other anomalies that 
are mis- or at least poorly un- 
derstood. I'm in way over my 
head trying to learn about so 
many things, I need your help. 

Continued on page 6 




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Letters 



Number 6 on your Feedback card 



Dr. Bill Schenker KG4DHJ, 
[wjs@liiikfast.netj. This is lo 
announce the formation uf the 
"*Y2K Net/* an amateur radio 

alternative communication sys- 
tem for post-Y2K in the event 
thai we lose all telephone ser- 
vice (which includes cell phones 
and the Internet), We have an- 
nounced plans for the net on two 
Y2K Web sites: 



mm 



From the Ham Shack 



1. TimcBomb2000 [hup:// 
www.gieenspun.com/bboard/q- 
and-a-fetch-msg .tclVnisii id= 
OOIPTT] 

2. Steve Hellers Y2K site 
[htip://www.koyote.eom/user5/ 
sihcller/y2kneti,htm] 

These sites can act as a meet- 
ing place for interested parties 
— look for the thread "The Y2K 
Net is starting." 




The current sked for the Y2K 
Net is nightly. 2(XX)Z CT. 14.275 
primary. 7.245 secondary, 3.905 
tertiary. If necessary, slide down 
to find clear spot try for 1 min- 
utes or so, then go to next Ireq. 
We are hoping to establish lo- 
cal and hopefully regional nets. 

Finally, I suggest that those 
hams who want to participate in 
the Y2K Net put their E-mail 
address in the [www.QRZ.com] 
database file. That way we can 
contact each other about future 
sked changes. 

Harold F. Byrd, Chula Vista 
CA. A friend. Chuck O'Harra 

of Chandler TX, has a son who 
is a computer consultant, He 
gave me the following info: 



Windows 95, 98, and NT will 
default into '"OCT in the year 
2000 unless the following cor- 
rective measures are taken: 

L Double click on "My Com- 
puter." 

2. Double click on "Control 
Panel." 

3. Double click on icon "Re- 
gional Settings," 

4. Click on "Date" tab at tup 
of page. It probably will show a 
two-digit year where it says 
"Short Date Sample." Thai is the 
default setting. 

5. Click on the button across 
from "Short Duil- Style" and 
select the option mm/dd/\\y\. 
NOTE: There must be 4 y's 
showing, not 2. 

6. Click "apply," then click 
"OK" at the bottom. 

Easy, fast simple. 



Updates 



Number 6 on your Feedback card 



Thanks from us and author 
Parker Cope io Ed Butorajac for 
pointing out an incorrect Fig, 2 
in W2GOM/7s article "All 
About Op Amps," which ap- 
peared in our August issue. A 
correct Fig. 2 is shown here. 

Likewise, a grateful Vlad 



Skrypnik UY5DJ joins us in 

thanking Hrnie Laney K5ENL 
and others for pointing out an 
incorrect URL that Vlad inad- 
vertently used in his article "PIC 
Key, PIC Key~ (September). 
The correct URL under Note #3 
should be: [hUp://homc5 + swip 
net.se/~w-53783]. 




Fig. 2. (a) Summing amplifier with inverted output, (b) Buffer 
with noninverting output. 

6 73 Amateur Radio Today * November 1999 



Neuer srv die 

continued from page 4 
Why? (Thanks, WB0FGK) 

If corn oil comes from 
corn, where does baby oil 
come from? 

Why do they put Braille 
dots on the drive-up ATM 
keypad? 

If nothing sticks to Teflon, 
how do they gel it to stick to 
the pan? 

What has four legs and an 
arm? A happy pit bull. 

Education 

You're only going to have 
the opportunity to make real 
monev when you have vour 
own business. But before \ou 
waste a lot of money learn ins 
what you need to know to 
start and run your own busi- 
ness, you want to get other 
people to happily pay you to 
learn. And they'll do it, as 
Tvc explained before. Several 
limes. 

Once you have a job with a 
small company in a field that 
is fun for yotK >ou arc in 
school as well as working. 
You want to use the opportu- 
nity to leam how to deal with 
bookkeepers, accountants, law- 
yers, bureaucrats, politicians, 
customers, suppliers, hank- 
ers, printers, mailing houses. 



ad agencies, the post office, 
and so on. 

When you've learned all 
you can working for one or 
two small companies, it's 
lime to look for a job as the 
manager of a company in the 
business so you can build 
your management and moti- 
vational skills. But. even 
more important- this is the 
lime to get enough pay to 
start salting away a startup 
nest egg and looking over the 
market for a product to sell 

When I started 73 maga- 
zine, I sold my boat plane, 
Arab horse, and Porsche to 
get enough to print the first 
issue. Well, owning all that 
Stuff was one way of saving 
and enjoying my savings at 
the same time. You know, I've 
never wanted a Porsche, a 
plane, or a boat again- Been 
there, done that. I did get an- 
other Arab horse when I sort of 
lucked into it but in retrospect 
that was a mistake. The fun and 
excitement for me is in new r 
things — new experiences. 

My envelope supplier had a 
young Arab stallion he had to 
sell. He'd run out of money. I 
bought the horse and broke 
him to the saddle, but I just 
didn't have the interest lo 
train him as thoroughly as I 

Continued on page 56 






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Four C's of Emergency 
Communications 

Tom Cume N4AOF recent fy suggested a few 
simple ways to improve your overall emergency 
communications capability. Although Tom has a 
background with Kentucky REACT, his advice can 
apply to any organization utilizing emergency 
communications, either paid or volunteer: 

The best advice for anyone performing emer- 
gency communications can be summarized by the 
four C T s; Calm. Courteous, Correct, and Concise. 

CALM. Try to keep emotion out of your voice. 
No matter what the emergency, a calm, profes- 
sional attitude will help Keep things cool and get 
the message through more quickly and accu- 
rately. Losing your cool calm attitude may cost 
an important message. The more reason you 
have for getting excited, the more important it is 
for you to remain calm, As an emergency com- 
munications volunteer you should set a good, 
cairn example for (he other people to follow. 

COURTEOUS. You must think of yourself as a 
public servant. RegardEessof provocation, remain 
courteous at al! times. Never display temper on 
the air. Remember the "Golden Rule" at all times 
and practice it, Never fight with other operators 
over calls or reports. Always follow the instruc- 
tions of the Net Control Station — whether you 
agree with those instructions or not. Most problems 
can wait until after the emergency situation is 
over If some problem absolutely must be ironed 
out, do it by telephone or on another frequency 
— not on the net. 

CORRECT Work to keep errors out of your 
communications. Use the phonetic alphabet and 
repeat the message where appropriate to get 
names, locations, and other information accu- 
rately. Write everything down for reference. Re- 
member, your role is communications — you are 
not in charge of anything. Most communications 
will be between the people who are in charge. 
When the Emergency Operations Center or Net 
Control Station asks a question, go get the an- 
swer from the person responsible, don't just give 
your best guess. It is always better to admit you 
don't know rather than give out information that 
is wrong. Always use plain language! Don't use 
jargon, Q-signals. 10-codes, etc., which may not 
be understood by everyone, Avoid using special- 
ized words and codes, even those of the agency 
you are supporting unless the message is going 
specifically to the same agency. 

CONCISE. Yourjobasan emergency commu- 
nications volunteer is to get the message trans- 
ferred while also allowing time for the other 
operators to get their messages transferred. Avoid 
tying up the net, by keeping your transmissions as 

8 73 Amateur Radio Today ■ November 1999 






brief as possible. Always leave a few seconds 
between transmissions in case someone needs 
to break m with an emergency call. A strictly busi- 
ness attitude is your best technique for ensuring 
tirnesaving communications. You must consider 
the conditions — -if everyone is full-quieting r there 
is little need to spell words, but if conditions aren't 
good or the word is particularly difficult, then it 
makes sense to spell it. Don't rush — speaking 
a little bit slower often gets the message through 
faster because the other operator doesn"t have 
to ask for repeats. Don't assume everyone has a 
pad and pencil instantly ready when you need to 
send him a long or complex message —ask first t 
which it saves time in the long run. 

Thanks to The Ham Arundel News (MD), Oc- 
tober 1998, 



Thanks to Newsline, Bill Pasternak WA6ITR 
editor 



Hams to the Rescue 

Greek ham radio operators were among the 
first to tell the outside world when a massive 
earthquake struck near the historic capitai city 
of Athens on Tuesday. September 7th- Called one 
of the worst quakes to hit the Athens area this 
century, the magnitude 5.7 tremor toppled build- 
ings and other structures in an Athens suburb, 
knocking out telephone and other normal lines 
of communications. 

According to initial news reports, it was hams 
who first reported that the death toll had climbed 
past fifty shortly after the quake rolled through 
the area. 

Stateside, ham radio may be responsible for 
saving the life of a firefighter involved in Plumas 
County (CA) fires. Everett Gracey WA6CBA in 
Reno reported that on Saturday, September 4th > 
firefighter James Monty was with another 
firefighter who suffered multiple bee stings. The 
bee venom put the unidentified firefighter into 
anaphylactic shock. Monty administered drugs 
to stabilize the other firefighter and then tried to 
radio for help using normal fire command radio 
channels. Owing to the terrain and their isolated 
location, he was unsuccessful. 

But Monty had thought to program one of the 
ham radio emergency frequencies into his 
firefighting support radio, He called there and was 
answered by a ham who passed the information 
to a RACES operator in the fire communications 
center. A rescue helicopter was immediately dis- 
patched, and transported the victim to the hospi- 
tal. Gracey says that it is quite possible that the 
radio operators helped save this firefighter's life. 
WA6C8A notes that it is ham radio operators who 
have volunteered many hours to help fill in the 
holes in the area's firefighting communications 
network, 



Top 10 Immutable Laws of 
Antenna Con struction 

10. Any given piece of wire is at least 3 inches 
shorter than you need, 

9. in the unlikely even* that you have trees in 
the right places, they wont be tall enough to use 
for about thirty years. 

8. Performance of an antenna is inversely pro- 
portional to the time and money spent on it. 

7, An allband antenna can be resonated on 
all bands except the one you need at the time. 

6. HF propagation will always be available, 
twenty-four hours a day, on some band that you 
don't have an antenna for 

5. The more accurately you measure the ma- 
terials for an antenna, the more likely you will 
make a mistake. 

4. The more directional an antenna is t the more 
likely it will be pointed in the wrong direction. 

3, Rotation time for a yagi wiif always be equal 
to or greater than the time it takes a signal to 
disappear. 

2. A computer model is an effective way to 
demonstrate how an antenna that works well 
should not work at all. 

And the Number 1 immutable Law of Antenna 
Construction: 

1. Anything will work as an antenna to some 
extent but nothing will work as well as it should. 

Thanks to Low Down, official journal of the 
Colorado QRP Club [cqc@aol.com]. 



FCC Relaxes Rules for 
Spread Spectrum 



The FCC has relaxed rules governing the use 
of spread spectrum techniques by radio amateurs 
and opened the door to the possibility of interna- 
tional spread spectrum communication. The Re- 
port and Order in WT Docket 97*12 adopted 
August 31 concludes a proceeding that originated 
with an ARRL petition in December 1 995 and has 
been pending since 1997. 

The FCC adopted rutes that will allow Ama- 
teur Radio stations to transmit additional spread 
spectrum emission types. Once the new rules 
were effective November 1 , hams will be able to 
use techniques other than frequency hopping and 
direct sequence spreading, in addition, the new 
FCC rules will permit US hams to use spread 
spectrum techniques to communicate with ama- 
teurs in other countries that permit SS, Spread 
spectrum communication has been limited to 
stations within FCC jurisdiction. 

The new rules require that spread spectrum 
stations running more than 1 W incorporate au- 
tomatic transmitter power control. Amateur sta* 
tions using SS are restricted to a maximum power 
of 100 W. 

Continued on page 45 



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Need a UHF Dipper? 

Part 2: Coupling to an outside environment. 



Hugh Wells W6WTU 

1411 18th Street 

Manhattan Beach CA 90266-4025 



Part 1 of this series discussed the 
theory of resonators as used 
within the older UHF TV tuners 
and measurement techniques. Pari 2 
continues with a discussion regarding 
coupling the tuner, as a dipper to an 
outside environment 



Sense loop 

For a dipper to function, an external 
sense loop must be provided so thai the 
dipper will have access to the un- 
known resonant circuit. For the typical 
dipper, the sense loop is also the inter- 
nal resonating element that determines 
the frequency of the dipper. The design 
of the dipper allows the resonator to be 
mounted external to the dipper's box. 
Then, as the operational frequency 
rises, the resonator loop gets smaller, 
making it verv difficult to "reach" into 
the unknown circuit. 

The TV tuner design has its resona- 
tor mounted in a channel so that access 
to the outside world is very difficult 
unless a coupling loop is added to the 
circuit. Adding a sense loop to the os- 
cillator of a tuner does present some 
problems that have to be worked out 
through experimentation. In order to 
convert the tuner to a dipper, I've 
10 73 Amateur Radio Today • November 1999 



elected as a first priority to get the oscil- 
lator operating at the desired frequency 
hand. A sense loop may be added using 
one of the two schemes discussed later, 
since tuners vary in the way they re* 
spond. Both schemes will have to be 
tried and evaluated in order to select one 
over the other. A suggested sense loop is 
shown in Fig, 1. where the dimensions 
are only approximate. 

I've observed several factors relative 
to the sense loop that may be of concern 
to some users. The loop has a natural 
resonant frequency that may fall within 
the frequency range of the oscillator An- 
other possible concern is the dip reac- 
tion that is a function of energy 
absorption from the oscillator. Another 
concern is the oscillator's reaction to a 
sense loop located near the oscillator's 
resonator. Tve observed quite a varia- 
tion from tuner to tuner, so that experi- 
mentation with the loop is necessary. 

The actual depth of the dip is a func- 
tion of the coupling factor and energy 
absorption from the oscillator by the 
resonant circuit being tested. One of 
the simple tests that works most of the 
time is to check the loop's reaction to 
hand capacity. As with a typical dipper, 
placing the hand on the sense loop 




Fig, I. Typical sense hop mounted on a 
phono connector. Initial dimensions are 
shown. The dotted line indicates a possible 
change in the profile when used with the 
dipper. 







IF 

n 




i_ SENSE 
_| LOOP 
CONNEaOR 




U 


if 


1 
















RF 


MIXER 


osc 






Fig, 2(b). Increasing the mechanical rigid- 
ity of the connector by soldering a wire 
over the mounting portion. 



«r| 1hi» ■ORlCm[>[ 



-z 




SPEOAUST S 



-AVIATION 4UM ftAOOS 



Fig* 2(a), Suggested mounting location of the sense loop connector. 



should cause a reaction that is observable 
on the meter. 

When the sense loop resonates 
within the tuning band of the oscilla- 
tor, a dip may be observed within the 
tuning range of ihe tuner-dipper. 
Therefore, it's desirable to place the 
loop's resonant point outside of the 
tuning range of the oscillator Or, the 
dip caused by the sense loop may just 
be ignored. 

I've found that mating phono con- 
nectors work well for mechanically 
supporting the sense loop. Soldering 
the female connector to the wall edge 
provides the needed mechanical stabil- 
ity. When the sense loop connector has 
been placed in a final location, a wire 
may be formed and soldered over the 
top of the mounting portion to increase 
the mechanical support of the connec- 
tor, as shown in Fig. 2, It is important 
to place the connector close to the cor- 
ner of the tuner's box, adjacent to the 
cold end of the resonator 

Sense loop schemes 

There are two sense loop connection 
schemes that appear to work, but each 
is tuner dependent and the one that 



works best with 
your tuner may be 
the better choice. 
The first scheme is 
to connect the 
sense loop through 
a capacitor to the 
RF end at the 
mixer diode. The 
oscillator's injec- 
tion loop is then 
shared by both the 
diode and the 
sense loop. The second scheme is to 
use a separate pickup loop as part of 
the sense loop circuit. Each of the 



sense loop schemes has an advantage 
and disadvantage requiring evaluation. 

The objective of the sense loop is to 
allow absorption of RF energy from 
the oscillator by an external resonator. 
Yet, the coupling factor must be mini- 
mixed to allow the oscillator to con- 
tinue oscillating with minimum sense 
loop loading. Therefore, adding a 
sense loop means that the loading on 
either the diode or the oscillator will 
occur depending upon the connection 
scheme that is elected* Paralleling the 
sense loop and the diode works well 
sometimes. 

Having the sense loop linked directly 



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73 Amateur Radio Today • November 1999 11 




] 



mounting 



RF 



MIXER 



osc 



Fig, 3. Typical location of the mixer diode and the sense loop con- 
nection when the cajxicitor scheme is used. 



to the oscillator resonator may sound 
like a better choice, hut it creates a new 
set of issues that must be resolved. 
Any loop of wire placed near a distrib- 
uted resonator will be fcl seen r * as a par* 
allel inductor by the resonator, causing 
it to increase in frequency depending 
upon the amount of coupling between 
the two. In addition to affecting the 
resonant frequency, the loop will also 
upset the oscillator's feedback, creat- 
ine an interesting effect. At some 
points within the tuning range the re- 
sulting "dip" indication will be nor- 
mal, while at other points the 
oscillators RF level will actually in- 
crease. Regardless of a dip or peaking 
condition, a reaction occurs, providing 
an indication of resonance at the test 
frequency. 
Fig* 3 shows both the typical mixer 




Fig. 4. A coupling capacitor is used when the sense loop and diode 

share the same pickup hop, 

12 73 Amateur Radio Today • November 1999 



diode 

and a suggested 
point for attaching 
the sense loop if this 
scheme is selected. 
Some tuners have 
the diode bed) 
mounted in the 
wall, and when 
that's the case, the 
connection should 
be made on the os- 
cillator side of the 
wall as close as 
possible to the di- 
ode body. 
When both the diode and the sense 
loop use the same oscillator injection 
pickup loop, it is suggested thai a cou- 
pling capacitor he used between the 
sense loop connector and the diode as 
shown in Fig- 4, The capacitor value is 
not critical, as its function is to break 
up a DC path through the sense loop. 
Capacitance values between 50 and 
470 pF have proven to be satisfactory. 
The precaution for using the capacitor 
is that some tuners actually have a DC 
bias placed on one end of the mixer di- 
ode. Although the bias value isn't re- 
quired in the dipper project, it's easier 
to accommodate the circuit than to 
modify it. 

Using a separate sense loop pickup 
loop presents some interesting situa- 
tions that do not have a "cookbook" 
solution. Several loop positions must 

be attempted in 
order to find the 
one method that 
works best. Keep 
in mind that the 
objective of the 
loop is to allow 
an external resona- 
tor to absorb energy 
from the oscilla- 
tor. The "sticky 
wicket" is being 
able to sense the 
absorption by the 
external circuit and 
simultaneously 
indicate that ab- 
sorption by a dip 
on the meter. It 
Sounds easy, but 



may not be because the RF field level 
detected by the diode must also be re- 
duced when absorption occurs. In 
some cases, placing the pickup loop 
close to the diode loop works because 
the field pattern around the diode loop 
is disturbed when absorption occurs. 

In other cases, absorbing energy di- 
rectly from the resonator works be- 
cause total oscillator power is reduced 
during absorption. 

Three starting loop positions for plac- 
ing the loop arc shown in Figs, 5(a), (b) 
and (c). So far, as Fve observed, the 
sense pickup loop should be placed 
within the I field of the resonator. The 
best position for the pickup loop can 
be determined only through trial and 
testing. Sensitivity to hand capacity is 
a simple and positive indication of 
"working." 

Testing 

Before applying power to the oscil- 
lator, a few jumpers need to be in- 
stalled to disable three circuits- The first 
one is to ground the varaclor's voltage 
control terminal when a varactor is used. 
Then a jumper wire needs to be sol- 
dered from the top oi" the variable ca- 
pacitor/resonator to ground for both 
the RF and mixer circuits as shown in 
Fig- 6. 

Supply voltage for the oscillator 
should be regulated for stability, but 
may be any voltage from about 1 2-20 
volts. Some oscillators work well at 
low voltages and others require 18-20 
volts alter being modified. I recom- 
mend about 15-16 volts as a starter 
in order to keep down the transistor's 
dissipation. 

With the sense loop removed and 
with a meter monitoring the rectified 
DC output from the mixer diode, the 
meter should move upscale when the 
voltage is applied to the oscillator. The 
next step is to rotate the variable tun- 
ing capacitor while observing the 
meter. Under normal circumstances, 
the meter's indicated lex el will move 
smoothly up and down the scale as the 
capacitor is rotated, but the indication 
should not so to zero. 

Once the meters amplitude and 
variations are noted, install the sense 
loop and repeat the tuning rotation. If 







Fig. 5. Typical locations for sense loop tri- 
als when (his scheme is used, (a) Shows a 
short loop placed in the 1 field close to a 
wall, (b) The pickup loop is extended and 
placed next to or over the diode injection 
loop, (c) The extended pickup loop is 
placed close to/or over the diode. 



no abrupl changes occur in the ampli- 
tude, ihcn the sense loop is not affect- 
ing the oscillator. However, there may 
be a decrease in the meter's amplitude 




indication as a result of connecting the 
loop. Some adjustments in the loop's 
profile and/or length may improve the 
meter's amplitude and dip response. A 
decrease may occur in the meter's in- 
dication when the sense loop shares 
the diode loop because of loading. The 
"fix" is lo continue operating at a 
lower meter current level. 

At this point, the oscillator should be 
operating over the "stock" operating 
frequency range of about 470-900 MH/ + 
Using whatever means is available, 
measure the frequency at each end of 
the tuning range so that you'll have a 
reference of where the oscillator is 
now as a starting point for the next step 
in the modification process. II an ab- 
sorption wavemeter is to be used, then 
now is the time to calibrate a point or 
two on its scale. 

The use of the absorption wavemeter 
will provide clues as to the depth of the 
dip as observed by the tuner-dipper 
Sometimes the wavemeter being tuned 
in proximity to the sense loop provides 
a better dip indication than does tuning 
the dipper in proximity of the wave- 
meter. This phenomenon is caused by 
loop loading and sometimes by the 
narrow tuning range of the tuner- 
dipper's oscillator after it has been 
modified. 

Parts 1 and 2 provided discussions 
regarding the use and testing of a UHF 
mechanical TV tuner used as a dipper. 
Part 3 will describe progressive modi- 
fication steps thai 
may be used to 
shift the operating 
frequency range 
of a UHF tuner 
into an adjacent 
ham band. 



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RF 



MIXER 



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Fig. £ Jumper wires added to disable RF, mixer sections, and the 
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73 Amateur Radio Today ■ November 1999 13 



Number t4 on your Feedback card 



Planning a DXpedition 

Here's what to do if you take Wayne's advice ,-- 



Denis Catalano W4DC 

14453 Alps Drive 

WoodbridgeVA 22193 



As a result of Waynes persis- 
tent urging tii oo and do some- 
thing interesting, about every 
four years members of the Woodbridge 
Wireless Inc. (WWI) go on a DX- 
pedition. This year, we went off to San 
Andres Island, Colombia HKOK In 
1995, il was Montserrat VP2MFM; in 
199K il was /one 2 in Canada VK2/ 
WD4KXB; and in 1986, it was Cay- 
man Island ZF2HI. All of these 
DXpeditions were very successful, and 
coincided with a major contest. But the 
real common thread for all these 
DXpeditions is a systematic approach 
to planning. My crutch for doing this is 
the Planning Task List shown in Table 
1. This list for DXpedition planning 
should work for all but the most rare 
destinations. I go through this list so 
thoroughly that some members of the 
team say, "Denis, don't lake all the 
fun out of it!" But even with all the 
planning, there are still many un- 
knowns. The more problem n you can 
solve at home, the more fun you will 
have on the DXpedition. I will 
briefly examine each item and relate it 
to our most recent DXpedition, so you, 
too, can join in on the fun of successful 
DXpeditioning. 
14 73 Amateur Radio Today * November 1999 



Item #1, country selection, actually 
goes on in conjunction with items #2. 
#3, #4, and #5, since they are all re- 
lated and can influence country selec- 
tion. We make a list of DX countries 
that haven't been really active re- 
eentlv. and which also fit the contest 
we plan to operate. If it's the CQWW 
contest, we look at countries in the rarer 
/ones. If it's the ARRL DX contest, we 



look at the rarer DX countries not too 
lur from the States. You can decide 
what your country selection process 
will be. The only restriction thai our 
group has placed on our selection pro- 
cess is picking a place with electricity. 
since the cost of a DXpedition is really 
impacted by having to lake gasoline 
and generators, With this restriction, 
only the rare uninhabited DX entities 




Photo A. San Andres ham Richard Bard HK0HEV meets author Denis Catalano W4DC. 

Richard was oj great assistance to the HK0F DXpedition team. 



are omitted from our universe of 
choices. We also determine how diffi- 
cult obtaining a license will be. If the 
chances of getting a license are very 
low, you may want to leave that coun- 
try to the very serious DXpediti oners. 
You also have to be able to get to 
where you want to go. So investigating 
the transportation options (#5) is also 
instrumental in choosing a country. By 
this lime, 1 usually have a core group 
together who arc really interested in 
going on a DXpedition. This not only 
splits the planning workload, but also 
gives ownership to the team members. 
Continuing the planning process, we 
usually start out with a long list of DX 
countries and end up with a short list, 
after going through the process. With 
the short list in hand, we try to contact 



DXpedition Planning Tasks 


# 


Task 


1 


Country selection 


2 


Intelligence (contact visitors/hams) 


3 


Local liaisons (DX country hams) 


4 


Licensing 


5 


Transportation to DX location 


6 


Team selection 


7 


Accommodations/site selection 


8 


Local transportation 


|i 


Customs "mfo and contact 


10 


Equipment coordination 


n 


Computers 


12 


Financial accounting 


13 


Home page 


14 


Sponsorship 


15 


Publicity 


16 


T-shirts 


17 


Setup 

< 


18 


Operating strategy (category, 
headings, propagation, op skeds) 


19 


Food 


20 


Photography/video 


21 


Score submission 


22 


QSL chores (design, print, manage) 



Table L DXpedition Planning Task List. 




Photo R* The HKOF team mourned their two yagis on water pipe purchased on the island 



other hams, both stateside and resident 
hams, who have operated from the DX 
locations being considered. I call these 
items intelligence (#2) and local liai- 
sons (#3). This is much easier today 
with the Internet and E-mail than it 



was just ten years ago. Also, while 
contacting the DX hams, you should 
be building friendships that will pay 
off later. Richard Bard HK0HEU (see 
photo) became our primary DX point 
of contact and, based on his inputs, we 



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73 Amateur Radio Today ■ November 1999 15 



— 



selected San Andres Island. Once the 
country has been selected, the planning 
really goes into high gear 

Next, we recruited the rest of the 
team (#6). We started with members of 
our club who wanted to go on the 
DXpedition, and then filled in empty 
slots with others who have participated 
in our past DXpeditions* We always 
try to take one person who has never 
been on a DXpedition. but has a burn- 
ing desire, and at least basic operating 
skills. The main thing to remember 
here is thai the group needs to be com- 
patible and willing to work together. 
The San Andres operating team was 
made up of Ed Pitts K50E Carl 
Henson WB4ZNH, Martha Henson 
WN4FVU. Everett Jackson WZ8R Vic 
Walz N2PP, Jack Ference AA3KX. 
and me, Jack was the WWI member 
who never had been on a DXpedition, 
but really was anxious to go. It turned 
out sreat, with Jack doing must of the 
CW duty. With the DXpedition team 
formed, weekly messages (E-mails) 
were sent to each team member sum- 
marizing the status of each task that 
had been assigned to one or another. 
We also formed a support team. These 
were mostly club members who 
wanted to be part of the effort. They 
helped take care of licensing arrange- 
ments, communications home, local 
transportation, computer programming, 
the home page, QSLing, T-shirts, and 
manv other tasks. 

We had already started the licensing 
(#4) and transportation (#5) investiga- 
tion as part of the country selection, 
so with a country selected and a team 



recruited these items were worked 

through to completion. For our DX- 
pedition to San Andres, neither of 
these tasks was easy. First of all, most 
travel agents and airlines have never 
heard of San Andres, so much of the 
leswork was done bv us. Since there 
arc no direct flights from the U.S., we 
had to find alternate connections. One 
was through Bogota, Colombia, and 
the other through San Jose, Costa 
Rica. Two members of the team took 
the Bogota route, while the rest of us 
went through San Jose. Because of the 
sporadic and frequently changing 
flight schedules of the connecting air- 
lines, it took most of us an extra day in 
both directions. Up until the week before 
departure, we weren't sure of the sec- 
ondary airline schedule, but everything 
worked out in the end. 

Getting our licenses was also a bit 
difficult, but with the help of the 
American Embassy in Bogota, we re- 
ceived our slant calls (to be used be- 
fore and after the contest) about fours 
weeks before our departure. Our re- 
quest for a special contest call initially 
went unanswered, and we then decided 
on using my call HK0/W4DC for the 
contest. After being on the island four 
days (one day before the contest), we 
received word on the air from several 
American hams that our contest call 
had been issued and the Colombian 
Radio League was trying to get in 
touch with us. Things worked out and 
we received a fax several hours before 
the start of the contest — HK0F had 
become a reality! 



Finding suitable accommodations 
(item #7), which had not been too dif- 
ficult on prior DXpeditions, turned out 
to be more difficult since rental prop- 
erties weren't the norm on San Andres. 
In fact, wc only found three choices 
available. The final selection for our DX- 
pedition QTH was the Caribe Campo 
Hotel, located in San Luis on the east 
side of the island, The food task (#19) 
was basically eliminated on this DX- 
pedition, since the Caribe Campo had an 
all-inclusive food plan that turned out to 
be terrific. Even with all the planning, 
we still weren't sure that the hotel villa 
that we rented was going to work out. 
Just a few weeks before our departure, 
we were notified that the hotel villa 
would not he available. Again, every- 
thing worked out in the end. and the 
hotel rooms we used actually added 
more flexibility to the antenna situa- 
tion. Even though we were treated 
very nicely h\ the hotel staff, the elec- 
trical power and water (especially hot 
water) was sporadic. In fact, most of us 
didn't have a hot shower all week, but no 
one complained since everything else 
worked out so well — and after all. this 
was a DXpedition. Planning for local 
transportation (#8) was also com- 
pleted. The choices were renting a ve- 
hicle or depending on taxis, buses, or 
local hams. We found rental cars to be 
very expensive, so we decided on taxis 
this time out. 

Items #9, #10, and #1 1 go hand and 
hand, and are the most involved of all 
the DXpedition tasks. Equipment co- 
ordination takes lots of negotiation and 
planning between all the team members. 




Photo C Featured art the folding QSL card cover (back at left, top at right} is an islander who was paid $10 to climb the palm tree to 
attach the dipoles. 

16 73 Amateur Radio Today • November 1999 



You want to choose a leader for these 
tasks who is organized and deter- 
mined* The customs planning was also 
complex — keeping track of and certi- 
fying all the equipment. Even though 
we didn't use much of the official pa- 
perwork, it was better to be prepared 
than to be sorry. An overall operating 
strategy (#18) was developed, since it 
impacts the type and quantity of equip- 
ment and computers. Our basic strategy 
was to have a two-station DX/contest 
expedition. Field Day-style, with the 
group bringing and setting up all sta- 
tions and antennas. We decided to op- 
erate in the multi-two category during 
the ARRL DX phone contest, and to 
concentrate on CW and RTTY before 
and after the contest. The equipment 
list turned out to be over 10 pages long 
and included three amps, two beams, 
two verticals, three transceivers, three 
computers, numerous tools, wire, over 
1000 feet of coax, RTTY gear, and 
many other accessories. The only 
items that we didn't carry with us were 
antenna masts/towers — we purchased 
60 feet of two-inch water pipe on the 
island to support the antennas. Conse- 
quently, the group shared over $900 of 
overweight baggage charges. 

The actual setup (#1 7) wasn't as com- 
pletely planned because we had no idea 
of the lay of the land So two members 
of the team arrived two days earlier 
than the rest of the group, to survey the 
situation and get things laid out. They 
arranged for an islander to climb palm 
trees (at $10 a tree) to erect our wire 
antennas (see photo featured on our 
QSL card). They also scoped out the 
vertical field, and purchased the sup- 
port pipe. When the rest of the team ar- 
rived, the yagis for 10/15/20 meters 
were put up relatively quickly (see 
photo), but the verticals for 80m and 
1 60m took a lot of time to set up prop- 
erly. The advance team selected one of 
the four hotel rooms as the radio shack, 
and doubled up in the remaining three 
rooms as sleeping quarters. Some "re- 
wiring" had to be done in the rooms to 
support the two 220 VAC amps. In all, 
it took about four days to set every- 
thing up the way we wanted, which is 
one reason the "on the air" time before 
the contest was a bit limited. We tried 



to keep a RTTY station on the air since 
this mode was frequently requested. 

Many of the other planning items are 
self-explanatory. One team member kept 
track of group expenses and collected 
group monies (#1 2). We had a support 
team member from Woodbridge Wire- 
less develop and maintain the home 
page (#13). It was extremely success- 
ful, and includes a log checker and a 
guest book for comments (check out 
the Woodbridge Wireless home page, 
which has additional information about 
all four of our DXpeditions [hup:// 
www.pwcwebxom/wwi/] ). We didn't 
really seek out much sponsorship (#14), 
but did get the loan of two vertical an- 
tennas from Force 12, I took care of 
the publicity (#15), which consisted of 
press releases to all the DX bulletins 
and magazines when the time was 
right. Like most DXpeditions, we 
made T-shirts (#16) for the group that 
also doubled as gifts to our helpers 
here and abroad. Wearing our T-shirts 
with the words "Radioafictondos" 
seemed to help going through customs. 
We also assigned a lead person for 
photography and video (#20). Once 
home, I had the task of pruning four 
hours of videotape into a 1 5 -minute 
video with authentic island music (15- 
minute professional videos are available 
on loan for both the VP2MFM and 
HK0F DXpeditions). Score submission 
(#21) turned out to be harder than antici- 
pated because the merge function 
wouldn't work with so many Qs. Lastly, 
but not trivial, are the QSL design, print- 
ing, and managing tasks (#22). Our 
group decided to do it up right with a 
color foldout card (Photo C). 

All of the planning paid off. The 
HK0F contest operation alone totaled 
1 1 ,785 QSOs. After the contest, opera- 
tions continued using the individual 
HK0/home callsigns with emphasis 
on CW and RTTY. The final QSO to- 
tals before and after the contest by 
mode were 1093 on RTTY, 3236 on 
CW, and 2144 additional phone Qs, for 
a grand total of 18,258 QSOs for the 
San Andres DXpedition. If you still 
need a QSL for any of the 
DXpeditions, send an SASE via my 
Callbook address. Now, start planning 
a DXpedition of your own! 







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73 Amateur Radio Today • November 1999 17 



Number 18 on your Feedback card 



Why Not (3-Morse? 

An amusing way to preserve your Morse code. 



Jean -Yves Morin VE2MHZ 

12 405, rue Crevier 

Montreal QC H4K 1 R3 

Canada 



owadays Morse code is wan- 
ing its way out of civilian sec- 
tors as well as military ones. 
The work required for its conservation 
lies mainly in the hands of radio ama- 
teurs and other practitioners who have 
been led to it by trade, interest, or 
simple curiosity. 

As you probably know, the actual In- 
ternational Morse code can produce 



the real international alphabet, con- 
taining letters outside the Roman al- 
phabet (seen here) that also have their 
Morse counterparts in dots and dashes. 
These letters are used in languages such 
as Russian, Greek, Arabic. Hebrew, and 
so forth. 

However, each character composed 
of dots and dashes is out of visual pro- 
portion with its equivalent letter, the 




Fig. L fi-Mors€ illustrated 

18 73 Amateur Radio Today * November 1999 



former being more of a linear shape 
than the average shrunken shape of the 
latter. With these in mind, why not 
build characters out of the actual 
Morse code? They should have aU the 
qualities of commonly used alphabets, 
with each character simple and easy to 
read, and abiding by these simple-to- 
follow rules: 

1. Each letter shall be composed of 
four or fewer elements (dots or 
dashes), 

2. Each successive element shall turn 
at ninety degrees right from the previous 
one, and this angle shall replace the 
original space. 

3. Only letters of the alphabet shall 
be used; signs or numbers shall remain 
the same for anv language. 

4. Accentuation and syllabication 
shall remain the same as in the original 
language. 

The new characters, in their sepa- 
rated and compact form, would be well 
adapted to handwriting, contact print- 
ing such as typewriting, TTY, or other 
means of printing, or simply to be read 
from a screen. Software would be also 
feasible for other font-type generators 
such as computers and microprocessors. 

Continued on page 43 



Number Won your Feedback card 



Building a Better Collins 

Add this $1 solid state replacement part to your 30SL 



It's often said that "necessity is the 
mother of invention." And to my 
_ mind, never has this cliche been 
more true than when I attempted to 
search out a reasonably priced Collins 
30SI linear amplifier replacement com- 
ponent for this vintage piece of radio 
gear. Anyone in a similar situation 
knows full well that its almost a con- 
tradiction in terms to find an adequate 
supply of anything labeled Collins at a 
cost that's considered even remotely 
reasonable. 

Tal;e. for example, the almost im- 
possible task of locating the Amperiie 
(115NO180) 120 VAC [Readers should 
note thaL original voltages in Collins 
and similar vintage equipment were of 
course listed as 115 VAC: we have 
changed these to the more modem 
convention of 120 VAC. — ed.]. 180- 
second lime delay ballast tube with 
normally open contacts. Its singular 
task is to fundamentally time and con- 
trol the entire interlock circuit. This 
component is the absolutely essential 
ingredient in that series of intricate cir- 
cuits that delay the application of high 
voltage to the plate of the tube until the 
indirectly heated cathode has reached 
operating temperature. 



How. exactly, is the timer designed 
to <io what it does? When powering 
up the amplifier, one function is to 

route 120 VAC to the relay heater. The 



Ronald Lumachi W2CQM 

73 Bay 26th Street 

Brooklyn NY 11214-3905 

[W2CQM@JunoComJ 

resistive wire winding is designed to 
generate heal, causing the bimetallic 
strips to move together and to complete 
the circuit mechanically. In concept. 




Photo A. A view of (he replacement time delay module. Note the module overhang above 
the diodes. You'll need clearance for K203 (barely visible) to the rear of the timer pack- 
age. The wires above the 120 VAC (see text note in column I re 120 VAC} ice cube-type 
relay are connected to a second set of normally open contacts on the relay and will even- 
tually control voltage to the two bulbs behind the plate and antenna tune dials. See text 
for details. 

73 Amateur Radio Today * November 1999 19 






5 




1 



120VAC 

HEATER 

VOLTAGE 



Fig. L A schematic representation of the 
three-minute rime delay relay as it appears 
in the Collins manual 



it's a little like the optional bulb that 
comes along with the string of Christ- 
mas lights to make ihem "blink." 

In any event, a 30S1 outage caused 
by this malfunctioning tube was per- 
sonally experienced by yours truly 
when the 120 VAC heat generating 
wire in thai timer tube suddenly let go. 
It worked well for a Saturday morning 
40 meter swap net, but when fired up 
the next day. it was a.s dead as the 
proverbial doornail. 1 guess its time 
was up and it went out in a (lash like a 
light bulb. 






■Hoi 




Photo It. The three components comprising the replacement timer 
in the 30SL Note that an octal socket has been hollowed out. Any 
type of 120 VAC relay will work Pictured is a 4PDT. The two 
wires have already been soldered to the coil input. The solid state 
hockey puck-style tinier is completely epoxy-encased except for 
the two fast-on connectors. One is visible on the upper left side of 
the module. The moth tic has application in any home-brew ampli- 
fier deck project nsitty an 8877 or the 3CX800A7 rube requiring a 
three'niinine delay, 

73 Amateur Radio Today • November 1 999 



A quick continu- 
ity check across 
pins 2 and 3 of the 
tube confirmed my 
worst suspicions. 
The circuit was 
open. In hindsight, 
I guess it was a 
reasonable thing 
to expect, espe- 
cially since this 
tube was the 
original Collins 
part installed well 
over 30 years ago. 
In my naivetd, 1 
thought all I 
needed to do was 
to plunk down a 
couple of bucks for 
a replacement and 
that case would be 
closed. Checking out some sources of 
supply resulted in a heart-stopping, 
putsc-quickeningj shortness-of-brealh 
experience, when I learned thai this 
lowly lubelike component when and if 
available, commanded a S75-S125 
price tag — a premium a bil loo dear 
for me lo swallow, especially since I 
have two 30SIs, However, I'm happy to 
say that after a tearful weekend of la- 
menting the tragedy, as well as suffering 

a loss of appetite. 
a clearer head 
prevailed and a 
unique and cheap 
solution became 
apparent. 

There was a 
better and 
cheaper way! 

A careful look 

at the 30S 1 sche- 
matic was all that 
was necessary to 
conjure up a safe, 
quick, inexpensive, 
and far belter al- 
ternative to biting 
the bullet and 
paying big bucks 
for a replacement 
OEM plug-in re- 
lay from some 
supplier who felt 




Photo C Two pair of color*caded wires have been soldered to the 
appropriate pins of the socket. After passing the lengths of wire 

through the hole in the center of the timer module, epoxy the 
socket in place. See the instructions for correct positioning to 
ensure clearances. 



that he was doing me a favor by taking 

my hard-earned money, I also realized 
that the wiring of this tube is relatively 
uncomplicated to understand and of- 
fered no surprises if any repair was 
contemplated. 

For example, there are only two 120 
VAC input connections at the tube 
socket (pins 2 and 3) to ihe heat generat- 
ing glow-in-the-dark windings within 
the lube that close the contacts, (See 
Fig. 1.) There are two remaining con- 
nections (pins 5 and 7) that are needed 
to complete the first leg o( the interlock 
circuit 30S I owners are aw are thai the 
time delay tube is conveniently found on 
the relay shelf of the amplifier, so it's no 
big deal gelling to the part and doing 
whatever maintenance is necessary. 

Even more gratifying. I discovered 
that there was more than sufficient 
room around the lube socket to do 
what I had in mind with a somewhat 
larger replacement component. What 
made me even less gloomy about the 
amplifier downtime was the fact that 
ail the wirine connections could he 
made directly from a stripped down 
octal socket without any modification 
whatsoever to the original circuit. 

My confidence in solving the big 
cash outlay dilemma was based on a 
catalog retailer's advertisement I had 
responded to some time earlier. The 
company offered a solid state 120 
VAC, ISO-second (a 150-second 



120 VAC 
RELAY (1A AAAX) 



« 



4 



TO 

PIN 

5 



i 

i 




» 



i 




TO PIN 2 




TO 
PIN 

7 



LOAD 



I 



INPUT 




TO PIN 3 



Fig. 2. Simplified wiring scheme. Pin 2 and Pin 3 refer to socket 
K202. 



heavy-duty unit also available) time 
delay relay for one dollar. Ai that time. 
I purchased a bunch of them for a 
project requiring a timed delay for a 
pair of 8877s nested comfortably on an 
RF deck. The component worked flaw- 
lessly in thai similar time delay cincum- 
stance, so I was assured of success in 
this application. 

Basically, the timer circuit is com- 
pletely clad in epoxy (see Photo B), 
except for a pair of fast-on hookup ter- 
minals protruding from its hockey 
puck design. Since it's completely en- 
closed, it's impossible to figure out 
how it works. What counts is that it 
operates flawlessly each and every | here, so just about any relay will work. 



It's configured 
to control voltage 
to any 120 VAC 
appliance with a 
rating of up to 
one amp, To get it 
working, feed one 
leg of the 120 
VAC line to the 
"Input" side of 
the cube. Wire 
the "Load" side 
(in this case) to 
one terminal of 
an outboard SPST 
(NO) relay. Hook 
up the other hot 
leg of the 120 
VAC line directly 
to the remaining 
terminal on the 
relay coil. Plug ii 
in and start count- 
ing "one thousand 
one, one thousand 
two ..." After exactly 1 80 seconds, the 
contacts on the outboard relay mysteri- 
ously close and the rest is history. If 
that sounds interesting, read on! 

What's first to do? 

In order to assemble the self-con- 
tained, plug-in module components 
necessary to replace the tube-type re- 
lay, all that's needed is an octal (8-pin) 
tube socket base, the one-buck mod- 
ule, and an SPST or SPDT (more on a 
DPDT option later) 120 VAC relay 
with about a 3-5 amp normally open 
contact rating. There's nothing critical 



time, so needing to know about its in- 
nards is strictly academic. 



PIN 2 & 3 

TO 120 VAC 




TUBE AND CHASSIS SOCKET 
(BOTTOM VIEW) 



Fig. 3, Bottom of time delay tube socket showing pin numbering. 



It is interesting to mention that even 
though my time delay tube was a 

goner, I couldn't 
bring myself to 
trash it for its 
base. It was a 
little like having 
difficulty saying 
good-bye to a 
lifelong friend. I 
guess the thought 
flashed through my 
mind that through 
some divine inter- 
vention, it might 



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73 Amateur Radio Today * November 1999 21 




Photo D. An "exploded" view of the com- 
ponent parts, Note the two fast -on connec- 
tors. Epoxy the socket base tmd relay to 
the module. The pair of striped wires in the 
upper right will control the two bulbs be- 
hind the plate and antenna tune dials. 



somehow come back to life at a later 
date. As an alternative. I found an old 
circa 1960s lube in the junk box that in 

a sense was given a partially new life 
for the now millennium by donating 
one of its "vital organs" to a good 
cause- 
One quick thought! In your search, 
you may come across a tube with 
fewer than 8 pins. That might be OK 10 
use just as long as pins 2, 3. 5. and 7 
are in place. Many of the vintage recti- 
fier tubes Tall into this category. Just 
remember thai the pin locations are 
counted from the underside of the tube 
socket, so pay careful attention to ihe 
illustrations. It can gel a bit contusing 
— especially if you're like me and not 
especially good with spatial relation- 
ships. 



EPOXY TUBE 
BASE TO MODULE 



z 



NOTE INDEX PIN 
DIRECTION 




BOTTOM VIEW 



Fig. 4. Location of hollowed out octal tube base prior to bonding 
to tinier module with epoxy. Positioning is viral to ensure clear- 
ances on relay shelf Note the position of the indexing pin with re- 
spect to die fast-on connectors on the module. 

22 73 Amateur Radio Today • November 1999 



To get rid of the glass envelope, 
wrap the tube in an old towel and care- 
fully break it with a hammer Slay away 
from hammering around the plastic base. 
It's fragile. Cut out all the interior wires 
and remove the embedded glass within 
the socket base. 

Using a soldering iron, apply some 
heat to each of the four identified pins 
to soften the solder and free the rem- 
nants of the wire within the pin. Simul- 
taneously, hit your hand sharply on the 
table top and the solder will eject it- 
self. Make certain that the tube prongs 
are open to the interior of the socket. If 
you've gotten this fan the hardest part 
of the job is behind you. 

Assembly is simple 

Strip off about one inch of insulation 
from two 6" lengths of solid wire and 
solder one end to pin 2 and one length 
to pin 3 of the hollow socket. When 
positioning the wire from the inside of 
the socket, make certain it extends be- 
yond the length of the pin for a good 
solder connection. Clip off any excess. 
Since high current is not an issue, I 

mm 

found that four conductor solid tele- 
phone hookup wire works well. It 
might be a good idea to color code the 
interior connections. It's amazing how r 
quickly you can forget what wire goes 
where. I used red lor the 1 20 VAC. Do 
the same thing with a pair of wires (I 
used green) to pins 5 and 7. Refer to 
the pictorial for pin numbering. If am 
mistakes are made, they will be made 
here. I know full well, because I made 
them. 

I completed the 
whole job < epoxy 
and all) and 
plugged it in. Pd 
still be waiting for 
the unit to time 
on if I didn't sus- 
pect I made a wir- 
ing error. I forgot 
that looking at the 
base of the tube is 
not the same as 
looking at the base 
of the socket. It 
was that mirror im- 
age that contused 
me; however, I 



cu 



INPUT 



n 



LOAD 



reconciled m\ self to that careless error 
by claiming that no one works on 
tubes any more. I'll only say that a 
word of caution to the wise is usually 
sufficient! 

Pass the bundle of wiring from the 
hollow tube socket (four strands) 
through the convenient hole found in 
the time delay module. (See Photo C.) 
At this point, you might want to take 
some time to epoxy the socket to the 
underside of the time delay module. To 
ensure clearance with relay K203 on 
the shelf, orient the socket indexing 
pin as shown in my pictorial. Position 
the module so that the two fast-on ter- 
minals, protruding from the module, are 
to the right. The socket is placed closest 
to you with the indexing pin lacing away 
(up). Clamp it in place or use a rubber 
band until the epoxy hardens. 

Make certain to get this orientation 
right. You'll want the timer module to 
overhang the diodes on the relay shelf 
and slay well away from relays K203 
and K201 . Epoxy a small outboard 120 
VAC SPST (NO) or SPOT relay (no 
other voltage will work) to the lop of 
the timer module. Center it on the 
module. Height clearance is no prob- 
lem in the 30SL so any size I amp re- 
lay you have will work fine. Solder 
one length of red wire from either pin 
2 or 3 to the input terminal on the mod- 
ule. It's clearly marked, so there's no 
problem with which wire goes where. 

Connect a short length of wire from 
the remaining load terminal (also 
marked) to one of the coil windings on 
the relay. Trim to length and solder the 
remaining red wire from the socket pin 
to the other coil connection of the out- 
board relay. The two remaining green 
wires are connected to the normally 
open contacts on the outboard relay. If 
you happen to have a DPDT relay, 
make certain that you connect to the 
terminals that close (make) on contact. 
Thafs about it. Plug it in. replace the 
amplifier front panel, and tire it up, 

Collins owners are a strange lot! 

Collins 30S1 owners know full well 
that no ready light indication is incor- 
porated in the amplifier design. That's 
a pain in the you know where, espe- 
cially if youVe in a sudden hurry to 





Photo E. A view of the now defunct timer delay tube along with 
two almost similar versions of its replacement. A careful look at 
the base of the tube will reveal how worn the tube was after years 
of service. The indexing pin had long ago broken off and the label 
and arrow helped to position it correctly in the socket The mod- 
ules are identical in design except that one relay is enclosed and 
the other is an open frame. The module to the left clearly indi- 
cates the input and load terminals described in the text. The solid 
state module will only com ml a 120 VAC relay, 



chase some DX and you don't have a 
stopwatch to time the delay. AH you can 
do is continue to push the high \ olmge 
button until the circuit kicks in. 

Obviously, there's got to be a better 
way. Since it would be considered sac- 
rilegious to drill a hole in the amp and 
install some kind of green-for-go pilot 
light, that option is out, However, re- 
member that we just installed an out- 
board relay on top of the timer module, 
so if you elected to use a DPST unit, 
you'd have an extra set of contacts do- 
ing nothing for you after the delay has 
been satisfied and the relay closes. 

Since drilling new holes in any piece 
of Collins gear is out of the question. 



here's an alterna- 
tive thai even the 
die-hard Collins 
owner can accept 
without any re- 
crimination. 
When powering 
up the amplifier, 
both the multim- 
eter and the plate 
and tuning dial 
lights are instantly 
on. Consider cut- 
ting the wire from 
the low voltage 
power source to 
the two lights be- 
hind the plate and 
tune dials. Con- 
nect a pair of 
light gauge wires 
to the two cut 
ends and dress the 
sufficiently long 
length of wire 
back to the new relay. Solder the 
ends of this twisted pair across the 
unused set of normally open contacts 
al that point. 

Again, make certain to leave the 
multimeter wiring intact so that it 
will continue to up light instantly 
upon power- up. The two bulbs be- 
hind the plate and antenna tune dials 
will remain dark until the 3-minutc 
delay has been satisfied. When the 
relay kicks in to close the interlock 
circuit, the dial lights will simulta- 
neously fire up and you* re good to 
go without a wasted moment. 

Continued on page 44 



Parts Suppl 


iers 




Part 


Part# 


Price 


Source 


Solid state time delay relay (115 
VAC 1 80 sec, delay timer 1 A load) 


650-0013 


$1.00 


Meridelson Electronics Co. 
Tel (800) 344-4465 


Solid state time detay relay (115 
VAC 150 sec, delay timer 10 A toad) 


660-0071 


$2.50 


SPDT 115 VAC relay 


460-1984 


$1 .95 


i DPDT115 VAC relay 


275-217 


S6.99 


Radio Shack 


DPDT 115 VAC relay 


11-1481 


$2.39 


Surplus Sales 

DM. (800) 488-3407 



Table 7. Parts suppliers. 



WANTED 

Fun, easy to build projects 
for publication in 73. 

For more info, write to: 

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73 Amateur Radio Today, 

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73 Amateur Radio Today • November T999 23 



Uumber 24 on your Feedback carti 



Isotron Notes 

Simple tips straight from the Hart. 



Thomas M. HartADfB 

54 Hemnaine Avenue 

Dedham MA 02026 



T~ wo years ago, I purchased an 
Isotron antenna from ihe Bilal 
Company for 20 meter portable 
work. After placing the unit on a pole 
and finding that it does an amazing 
job for such a small unit. I decided to 
experiment a liule. 

I have had very good luck using a 1/ 
4 wavelength wire radial on my 2 
meter walkie. Tests with local hams in- 
dicated a big increase in my signal 
strength with the radial in place. It seems 




Photo A. Ten-foot pole in action. 

24 73 Amateur Radio Today • November 1999 



to me that there was even a commercial 
version of the add-on radial on the 
market at one point- 

The 20 meter Isotron, on top of a 10* 
foot temporary pole, was my next tar- 
get for a "tall" I used the 1/2 wave 
dipole formula as follows: 

(468/14.2) = 33 feet 
(33 feet) times (105%) divided by 
(2) = 1 73 feet 

The goal of my computations was to 
determine 1/2 wavelength, increase 
that by 5% (the usual increase for radi- 
als), and divide the product by two for 
1/4 wavelength radials. 

Using some Radio Shack plastic- 
coated braided wire for ease of wind- 
ing and storing. I added a radial to the 
Isotron at the point where the U- 
bracket connects to the grounded part 
of the antenna. The radial simply runs 
in a convenient direction — away from 
the antenna. 

Results: I can only offer experience, 
not actual measurements. During CW 
operations on the Scandinavian CW 
DX contest one year, I increased my 
contact rate by 100% after adding the 
radiaL While I would like to believe 



thai my rapidly improving contesting 
skills were the only reason, I have to 
believe that the radial played a part. 
too. 

You might want to investigate this 
project and find a way to fine tune the 
radial for best results. 

The ten-foot pole: portable antenna 
support 

I have an MFJ 20 meter SSB/CW rig 
that I use for portable QRP operations 



ANTEMYA 

ATTACHMENT 



MNGNLTTANQ 
WXT 



WlOMGUT 




HUT STAKE 
Qf^EOeOi 



Fig. L AD IB ten- foot pole. 



/ 



1 




1 






** 

















END CAP 
fTO TAP INTO GROUND) 



™rx 



4-WAY 
CONNECTOR 



F*€FO« 
BOTRON 
AHIEhNA 




DUCTTAPfWRAP 



SKIPOLf 



Fig, 2. Ski- pole mast. 

in conjunction with an Isotron an- 
tenna. The need for an antenna support 
led me to design and build a ten- foot 
pole for hamming away from home. 
The support is made from two-inch-di- 
arneter PVC pipe cut into three sec- 
tions for easy transport. Each section 
has a coupling epoxied to the end that 
allows attachment of the next piece. 
Ground fastenings are four tent 
stakes — a large stake at the base and 
three smaller ones for the nylon guy 
wires. 

The dimensions are not critical — 
The whole design can be modified as 
needed. But it is very handy and makes 
a compact package when disassembled 
and wrapped up. 




Photo B. Ski-pole mast. 



Isotron mast for 
portable operations 

While taking my afternoon jog 
around the neighborhood last year, I 
spotted an old ski pole in the trash 
wailing for pickup. What a great base 
for my Isotron antenna, I thought, 

I grabbed the ski po!e from the trash 
barTel and continued my running, 
headphone stereo in one hand and ski 
pole in the other Several neighbors 
called my wife to ask if there was a 
good reason that I was jogging along 
with a "spear' 1 or if I had simply lost 
my mind. No, oxygen deprivation was 
not the culprit I had had an inspiration! 

I removed the handle and basket 
from the pole. A wrap of duct tape at 
the top of the pole increased the diam- 
eter enough to fit inside a 2-inch PVC 
pipe assembly used to hold the antenna 
on top of the "mast." 

This thing works— I used it on a 
February school vacation trip to Maine 
and made a number of contacts on 20 



meter QRP with my MFJ rig. The 
whole thing is very simple and cheap. 
In fact, you can get your own ski pole 
the next time the trash barrels are out 
at the curb waiting for the truck. 





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been slightly discharged (unlike Ni-Cads that have memory). The charging circuit uses voltage 
sensing circuitry. Other brands are timed chargers, which always charge a battery a full cycle. If 
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73 Amateur Radio Today * November 1999 25 



Number 26 on your Feedback card 



Basic Transceiver Tester 

Tiiis fancy spin on some common components is a good beginner's project. 



Klaus Spies WB9YBM 

815 Woodland Heights Blvd. 

Streamwood IL 60107 

[WB9YBM® JUNO.COM] 



Have you ever sent a radio in for 
repair, only to find out you 
could have fixed the problem 
yourself? With these simple ideas, 
you can save some time, money, and 
embarrassment. 

The microphone tester wiU check 
your PTT as well as the element itself. 
The PTT is simply hooked in series 
with an LED and current- limiting re- 
sistor. When you push the PTT. the 
LED will light: if not you have eilher 
a bad switch or an open in the cable. A 




Photo A. The final version of the radio tester. The switch on the far 
left is the power switch; SI and S2 on the schematic have been com- 
bined to a center-off switch (3P3T). The speaker jack is on the side; 
cable to the transceiver comes out the rear, with the power cable. 

26 73 Amateur Radio Today » November 1999 



bad cable will be indicated by a flick- 
ering LED (it flickers in sync with the 
movement of the cable). Typically, 
cables go bad at the major stress points 
— the connector at the radio, the strain 
relief at the microphone, or wherever it 
cot caueht in vour car door 

The audio amplifier is a commonly 
available 1/2- watt amplifier IC found 
at Radio Shack, With even a modest 
communications-class speaker, I found 
a half watt to be more than adequate 
in output power. The main thing to 

remember, espe- 
cially if you' re go- 
ing lo use the 
amplifier for other 
experiments in the 
ham shack, is to 
buy a log potenti- 
ometer, 1 bought 
an on/off switch 
that 1 mounted to 
the rear of the po- 
tentiometer; this 
way, I could turn 
off this section of 
the tester when not 
in use. as well as 
make certain I'd 
start at minimum 



volume every time to avoid unex- 
pected surprises. 
While talking into the microphone in 

a normal speaking voice, adjust the 
volume for a comfortable listening 
level (avoiding the hish volumes that 
would cause feedback). By flexing the 
microphone cable, it readily becomes 
obvious if there are any intermitients 
in the cable. 

The transmitter tester is also in two 
sections, which can operate indepen- 
dently of each other. If SI is left off, 
S2 will toggle the radio into transmit 
without having to use a rubber band 
around the microphones PTT (or 
some other inconvenient method). This 




Photo B, The actual circuit (audio amp 

still to be plugged in — that was done in fi- 
nal assembly I 



■13.5V 




R4 

IK 



OOltf 



m 



R3 

10K 



G i Rl 



U2 
IM741 



12K 



r 



Li 



+13.5V 



R2 
12JC 



R6 
100K 




H~ 




+13 5V 
TENABtf ^ 



AUOOOOT 



100K 



C3 4: ~ c* 




+135V 



AUDIO ON/OFF 



LEO 



Fig, i. Transmitter tester. Unlabeled resistor near S2 is R7, 620 ohms. 



will allow both hands to be free to do 
whatever knob turning, instrument 
reading, schematic chasing, etc., that's 
required. Just don't forget a suitable 
dummy load on the antenna! Again, 1 
use the ever-convenient LED as a sta- 
tus indicator — especially important 
here — so finals don't get fried (as in, 
"Oops, guess what I forgot to turn 
off?!"). Once SI gets turned an, audio 
is injected into the radio via the micro- 
phone connector (replacing the micro- 
phone with the cable from this tester). 
The audio oscillator has been modi- 
fied from a circuit on page 47 of a 
book published by Radio Shack, 
Engineer's Mini-Notebook by Forrest 
M Mims EH. First, I modified the cir- 
cuit to allow single-supply operation 



via P2. Then I added a volume control 
During my initial experiments, P2 con- 
sisted of two 10k fixed resistors. When 
I noticed that the circuit operated 
nearly rail-to-rail (when PI is adjusted 
to make the circuit oscillate), I noticed 
slight clipping on the bottom of the 
waveform. This was caused by the two 
10k resistors not being totally identical 
(I'm using 5% tolerance components). 
To save money by not buying 1 % re- 
sistors, I used a 20k potentiometer in- 
stead and adjusted it for exactly 1/2 of 
my supply voltage. By backing off 
slightly on PI, I could drop the output 
voltage slightly as well t so the amplifier 
isn't driven quite as hard. 

Continued on page 44 



C4 
IMF 

)— If" 



a 

10pF 



i 



AFIN 



i 



Ul 
LM386 



t 



+13, 5V 



C3 
250mF 




IS1 
SPEAKER 



Fig, 2. Microphone tester. 




Photo C. A brief demonstration of the 
"mix VT match" station accessories I'm 
building (the digital tester is still under 
construction). 



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73 Amateur Radio Today ■ November 1999 27 






Number 2$ on your feedback card 



Your Batteries Ready for Y2K? 

Electrifying tidbits even you old -timers don V know. 



Donald E. Koehler N7MGT 

P.O. Box 6382 
Elmendorf AFB AK 99506-6382 
[AFDEK1 ©UAA.ALASKA.EDU] 



Ham radio operators work with 
lead-acid bauery strings, 
many without fully under- 
standing all of i he requirements for 
proper maintenance practice. Further, 
many hams will similarly perform 
maintenance on larger battery strings, 
such as those found in solar power 
plants or small hydro-powered sys- 
tems — if not for themselves, then for 
their friends — and be subject to the 
same knowledge shortfall. Let's see if 

we can do a little enlightening, 

■ 

twill start by identifying several 




Photo A, Safety first! In commercial sites, 
a water shower is installed. You should 
have a ready source of water what you 
work on batteries. 

28 73 Amateur Radio Today • November 1 999 



types of lead-acid batteries that may be 
found in your station or solar plant, 

and then describe how to perform 
maintenance and tests on the battery. 
Standards exist within the power in- 
dustry; I give you an example of these 
maintenance practices at the end of 
this article. You can take this informa- 
tion and see how it may fit into your 
specific station. 

One of the most common types of 
cell used in a station battery string is 
the "flooded cell." Often seen in solar 
power plants, electric golf carls, or as 
part of Uninterruptible Power Supplies 
(UPS), they can be considered a large 
capacity unit and contain significant 
amounts of free electrolyte. Be sure to 
check the battery Material Safety Data 
Sheet or technical specification sheet 
to find design voltage and internal 
loading. If you don't have this data, 
you can use the Internet to find the bat- 
tery manufacturer — most have very 
informative Web sites, I have easily ob- 
tained this type of information within 
hours of starting a search, with the 
manufacturer most willing to Fax the 
information to the shack. 

While the flooded cell is generally 
forgiving in terms of charge and dis- 
charge, it does present some well-know n 



problems. There is a risk of sulfuric 
acid spills, and the process of charging 
batteries can generate explosive amounts 
of hydrogen gas. Before you start on any 
maintenance, be sure vou have the 
proper Personal Protective Equipment 
(PPE) and understand basic safetv pre- 
cautions. Insulated tools should be 
used to perform any maintenance on 
your battery plant 

Start work with a close visual in- 
spection. The larger cells typically 
found in solar plants have vented caps 
to allow any gas to escape, while 
blocking sparks from reaching the in- 
ternal portion of the cell. These caps 
require periodic inspection and, possi- 
bly, cleaning. Generally, a soaking in 
distilled water is all that is needed. 

Sporadic maintenance or poor instal- 
lation practices may cause the inter- 
cell connections to overheat or even 
cause the bauery posl(s) to melt down. 
Both of these conditions can lead to a 
short — resulting in a runaway condi- 
tion that could cause a fire. Careful 
cleaning and a check on the torque of 
the link bolls should be performed an- 
nually. Most inter-cell links are cov- 
ered with an anti-corrosive compound. 
You must remove and clean the link. 




Photo B. A commercial battery tester 




Photo C. Don V try this at home! A set of batteries under test load 
in a commercial site. 



Next comes a close check far signs of 
heating or loss of link mass due to cor- 
rosion. Replace questionable links im- 
mediately! The battery must be 
removed from service to work on in* 
ler-cell connections — safety first! 

Have you ever heard this: "We don't 
need to worry about those batteries — 
they're maintenance- free and leak- 
proof to boot!" The person here may 
be referring to a VRLA or Valve-Regu- 
lated Lead- Acid battery. They could 
also be referring to a "gel-cell" or 
gelled electrolyte battery, or possibly 
an Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM) battery 
or absorbed electrolyte battery. These 
common and dangerously erroneous 
assumptions about maintenance re- 
quirements and leakage could lead to a 
disaster. 

AH of these VRLA battery types fea- 
ture a sealed case; however, the phys- 
ics of how each battery functions are 
significantly different. Valve- regulated 
batteries are a type of sealed battery 
that, as die name implies, regulate the 
venting of excess hydrogen gas 
through a one-way valve or vent, 
VRLA batteries are often called t4 cap- 
Hired electrolyte" or "capture mat" bat- 
teries, or they may sometimes be called 
"recombination" batteries. These names 
indicate the internal physics of the bat- 
tery, while the terms "vented" and 
"valve-regulated" specifically refer to 
the mechanical device allowing the 
battery to vent excess gas. 

VRLA batteries can contain signifi- 
cant amounts of sulfuric acid, and they 
do vent explosive hydrogen gas. Worse 



yet f they are very sensitive to tempera- 
ture and charge rate. If overcharged, 
VRLA batteries can go into internal 
thermal runaway and explode vio- 
lently* I have seen the results of these 
battery explosions — they have the 
power of a bomb. If that isn't enough, 
some case swelling is considered "nor- 
mal." though excessive case swelling 
will indicate trouble. All this can be 



confusing — suspect batteries or bat- 
tery plants should be inspected by a 
professional battery technician. 

Next on the list are "gel-cell" batter- 
ies. These are a sealed case type of bat- 
tery that recombine the hydrogen 
formed in the recharging process with 
free oxygen to form water which, in 
turn, keeps the cell "wet," or hydrated. 
The term " maintenance-free" was 




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73 Amateur Radio Today ■ November 1999 29 



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CIRCLE 168 ON READER SERVICE CAfiO 

30 73 Amateur Radio Today * November 1999 



coined by battery 
manufacturers in 
order to market re- 
combination-type 
batteries* Don't be 
fooled! These still 
require some regu- 
lar maintenance 

Batteries touted 
as raaintenance-ftee 
are, in reality, "re- 
duced maintenance 
batteries." It is 
not necessary to 
routinely monitor 
the hydration of 
these batteries as 
with the traditional 
flooded cells. These batteries should 
be inspected regularly for signs of 
stress. Two of the most reliable indica- 
tors of battery health are regular inter- 
cell resistance measurements and cell 
temperature measurements. All types 
of sealed batteries require careful 
charging and pose an explosion haz- 
ard. Maintenance of these systems will 
require a check of the temperature sen- 
sors that are part of any professional 
charging system. Do not exchange bat- 
tery chargers without ensuring that the 
new unit is compatible with your 
sealed battery plant. 

While the battery plant is off-line 
during maintenance* perform a voltage 
check on each cell. Record this for 
later use. You should track cell-to-cell 
impedance or internal resistance. This 
is the real limiting factor in your bat- 
tery plant's charge and discharge cur- 
rent rate. You will need a load, a pair 
of accurate volt-ampere meters, hy- 
drometer, thermometer, and safety 
equipment 

Begin by taking the battery string 
off-line; let it sit for at least two hours. 
While this "settling" period is started, 
you can carefully clean the "jar" or 
case of the battery. Wear gloves, 
apron, and safety goggles! Use a clean 
cloth soaked in clear (distilled is best) 
water. Remove all signs of corrosion 
and dirt. A small amount of soda may 
be used lor stubborn areas. Remove in- 
ter-cell links and soak in soda water. 
Clean the links and check for pitting or 
loss of mass. If you find any, it is a 




Photo D. These batteries have a flame arrestor vent cap, and 
access for a thermometer. 



good sign the battery cell may be con- 
taminated. Replace any links that have 
lost any mass or are heavily pitted. 

Clean and inspect the cell posts care- 
fully — use a flashlight if you are not 
in bright light. If you are fortunate to 
have glass cells, visually check the 
bottom of the cell for buildup of scale 
from the places. If this scale contacts 
the plates, failure is certain. Remove 
the cell from service and dispose of it 
legally. Sec my article in the June 
1994 issue for more detail on legal 
disposal. 

By now, the battery will have settled- 
Take the electrolyte temperature and 





Wf ' 






^ |H% ■ ffi m 


\0 


1 1 W , 



Photo £. These batteries have a spill pan 
and acid neutralized material on the floor. 
If you have a large system, this may be a 
local requirement — be sure to check! 




Photo E A large, well-installed battery 
bank had the feed cables braced. 



record the reading. Now, remove the 
cell vent caps, take the hydrometer, 
and pull a sample. The specific-grav- 
ity-to-slate-of-charge figures will be 
outlined in your Material Safety Data 
Sheet Wear all safety equipment while 
performing this test. If you do it quar- 
terly, you will be able to discover any 
cells before ihey go bad. The next ac- 
tion to take is a load test. 

A word of caution here — DO NOT 
perform a load test on "capture map" 
or "starved electrolyte" batteries. 
These cells might be ruined by exces- 
sive loads used in this test. Worse, you 
might start a thermal runaway with di- 
sastrous results — so let's leave these 
types to the professionals. 

A load test on a wet or flooded cell 
battery is no problem. First, set your 
voltmeter to read the unloaded cell 
voltage. Then, set a shunt to read the 
current pulled in the test. So now you 
have an ammeter shunt to read current, 
and a voltmeter to read loaded voltage, 
The next step is to attach your load- 1 
use a huge military surplus rheostat — 
you can use an auto headlamp with 
both elements wired to provide a load. 
I increase the load until the battery 
voltage drop stops and then becomes 
steady, and then I quickly remove the 
load. Be careful — lots of heat can be 
generated. Simple math and Ohm's 
law will reveal the inter-cell imped- 
ance; write it down. Should this read- 
ing increase, your cell may be nearing 
the end of its useful life. If this seems 
like too much trouble, garages use a 
commercial unit to perform these 
types of load tests. Used units may be 
available, so it might prove beneficial 
to call around. 
When you* re finished, assemble the 



cells into a battery. The use of noncon- 
ductive grease such as No-Ox will go a 
long way to save time and money in 
the future. Hopefully, this article will 
give you at least some of the informa- 
tion you need to keep your battery 
plant humming along and your station 
on the air, no matter what. With Y2K 
around the corner, be sure to get your 
maintenance done now! 

What more data? 

Check out these sites: 

[http;//www. usbr.gov/power/dala/ 
fist_pub.htm] — maintenance practice 
standards. 

[http;//members. aol.com/bmmsuk/ 
celIcord.htm] — commercial testing 
equipment. 



[hup: //www, measure betterxom/ 
products/batactLhtm] — battery tester. 

[http://www.avoinil.coni/products/ 
battery/] — more battery test infor- 
mation. 

[http://www.radco.thomas- 
register.com/olc/radco/radco3a.htm] 
— automotive battery tester. 

Please: Be sure to use common 
sense and practice safety first. If you 
don't know what you are doing, take 
the time to read about battery main- 
tenance. Batteries may appear to be a 
simple type of older technology, but 
they can kill you. 

Enjoy life off the grid in a safe and 
sane manner. You may contact me 
via the E-mail address at top if you 
like. 73, N7MGT. 



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73 Amateur Radio Today * November 1999 31 



Number 32 on your Feedback carxt 



73 Review 



A Big Look at 
Small Wonders' WM-20 

77? is SSB transceiver kit is fun to build and works well 



Jeff M. Gold AC4HF 
1751 Dry Creek Rd. 
CookevilleTN 38501 



I have built many of the transceiver 
kits on the market. Although I oper- 
ate mostly CW. I also enjoy working 
SSB. When I saw the Small Wonders 
SSB kit, it immediately got my atten- 
tion, You can purchase the kit with the 
board and all the on-board parts, or 
with the optional enclosure kit that in- 
cludes an extrusion enclosure, 10- turn 
potentiometer for tuning, on- hoard fre- 
quency counter, connectors, knobs, and 
controls. The board is only 4.4" x 5.25'*. 
The case is not much bisser. The fin- 
ished product is extremely small and 
light. This is a very good project for a 
builder who hits experience building 
kits. The WM-20 board kit costs $100. 
The enclosure is an additional $60, 




Photo A. The PC hoard. 

32 73 Amateur Radio Today - November 1999 



The kit is available for 40 meters 
(WM-4Q) and 75 meters (WM-75). 
The builder will need to supply an HT 
speaker/mike. The WM series is de- 
signed to be used with the Yaesu 
MHW-12AB, ICOM M 54, MFJ-284, 
and Radio Shack HT speaker/mikes. I 
tested mine with the MFJ-284 and a 
very old ICOM speaker/mike. I could 
not detect any difference either on 
transmit or receive between the two. 

The board is a good-quality double- 
sided printed circuit board. It is quite 
easy to solder on. The drawback is that 
with this type of board, it is not easy to 
unsolder components, If you are care- 
ful and follow the directions, this 
should not present any problem. The 

only time I ended 
up desoldering was 
once I had com- 
pleted the project 
and experimented 
with the transmit 
section. I used a 
solder sucker and 
some desoldering 
braid. I took my 
time and did not 
have a problem. 

The parts on the 
board are densely 
packed. Some of 



the parts overlays use the value of the 
components and some use the part 
numbers. This is not a problem, but I 
suggest caution in making sure the 
correct part gets placed in the proper 
spot on the hoard. I used meters and 
measured all resistors. I also sorted out 
all the capacitors before I started. I 
take a sheet of blank 8.5" x 11" paper, 
stick the capacitor legs through the 
sheet, and label the values. This makes 
the building phase much smoother, 

I take a few plastic parts trays and 
sort out the resistors in bunches that 
are small enough that I can take out 
my magnifying glass and pick the cor- 
rect colors. Some builders will sort all 
the resistors in the same way I sort out 
the capacitors. I hate spending time 
doing it this way, and find that if I 
separate them out this way, I can easily 
pull the correct resistor while I am 
building. 

The manual is a professional -look- 
ing document that has a large parts lay- 
out, the parts lists, troubleshooting 
schematics, a list of things to do before 
you build, and directions. The manual 
starts with a circuit description, Dave 
Benson NNIG designed the rig more 
for performance than small parts 
counts. The receiver uses a low-gain 
j309 RF preamp, diode-ring mixer, and 



mixer post-amp. The receiver has au- 
tomatic gain control. The transmitter 
chain also uses diode-ring mixers for 
good carrier suppression and RF sta- 
bility. There is minimal sharing of trans- 
mit and receive circuitry. The manual 
gives a nice circuit description. The ac- 
tual building instructions start with gen- 
eral guidelines, such as how to put the 
diodes in the hoard with correct polar- 
ity, how to install IC sockets, and how 
to wind tor o ids. 

The kit was designed to be built and 
tested by functional sections. I appre- 
ciated the build-by-section approach. 
Dave has divided the project up into 
seven groups. He starts off each sec- 
tion with a blowup of where the sec- 
tion you wiU be building is on the 
board. The best part is checking each 
section before proceeding to the next 
one. This makes it a lot easier to find 
any problems as you go along. You 
build the transmit/receive switching 
section first. Next you complete the re- 
ceiver "back end/* The next section is 
the local oscillator and buffer When 



you finish the fourth section, you have 
completed the receiver The fifth sec- 
tion is the SSB generator circuitry, fol- 
lowed by the 14 MHz driver circuitry, 
The last section is the final transmitter 
section, Dave includes a small packet 
of test circuitry to check some of the 
sections. This consists of PC board 
material and some diodes and .01 ca- 
pacitors. It was fun to build up the 
little board. This is done on the PC 
board directly and you build from a 
schematic. It is a simple circuit and 
worked well. I checked each section ac- 
cording to the directions and most came 
up right away in the manner described. 

I only encountered one discrepancy 
with my testing. When checking the lo- 
cal oscillator frequency I found the fre- 
quency to be too low, Dave covers this in 
the manual. As suggested, I removed 
one turn off L3 to lower the frequency, 
and then used the trimmer capacitor 
(CI 6) to gel me right on frequency. 

My adjustments for the local oscilla- 
tor were made easier by the fact that I 
had purchased the enclosure kit. The 



kit comes with frequency counter cir- 
cuitry that installs on the main board. 
Once these parts are installed, you can 
temporarily put a jumper (provided 
with kit) across the "SPOT" header 
pins. Then, with a speaker attached, 
you will hear a 3-digit series of Morse 
code characters. These will be the kHz 
value of the transceiver frequency. For 
example, if you hear "212" in Morse, 
it will represent 14.212 kHz. 

The alignment of the transceiver is 
pretty straightforward. First you align 
the local oscillator (LO) using the 
trimmer capacitor. It is easier if you 
have an external frequency counter or 
the counter circuitry installed. If not, 
you can adjust the LO by transmitting 
into a dummy load and using a cali- 
brated stations receiver. To adjust the 
receiver, you just peak one IF trans- 
former for maximum hiss. This adjust- 
ment was very sharp and easy to do 
with my kit Then you tweak two trim- 
mer capacitors (C3, C4) for maximum 
hiss at the speaker. These weren't as 
sharp a peak as the IE There is one 



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73 Amateur Radio Today * November 1999 33 



adjustable on-board resistor to adjust 

the AGC action. You do this by adjust- 
ing the resistor for a comfortable 
maximum audio output while listening 
to a strong on-lhe-air signal. 

To align the transmitter, you install a 
test jumper and. while hooked to a 
dummy load, adjust two more trimmer 
capacitors for maximum CW power 
<C29, C21). The best way to do this is 
using a QRP wattmeter. Next, remove 
the lest jumper and adjust the TX off- 
set by adjusting a trimmer capacitor 
(C21) for the most natural voice 
sound, while listening on a station re- 
ceiver. The manual suggests using a 
set of headphones on the station re- 
ceiver so that you can really hear what 
is going on. The last adjustment is the 
mike gain trimpot, which you adjust 
for maximum gain without distortion. 
I found the whole process to be quick 
and straightforward. 

The only problem I encountered 
with the entire kit is that with the test 
jumper installed, 1 can only get about 
L5 walls CW power out using aboul 
13 volts, I get about I watt out using a 
12 volt gel cell. All the external con- 
trols attach to the hoard with plugs that 
slide onto board jumpers. This makes 
it very easy to put the final controls on 
and do adjustments and modifications. 

When I had the rig about finished, 
but not in the case and not through a fi- 
nal alignment. I decided to bring it 
over to my operating bench and hook 
it up. I placed a piece of paper on top 
of the metal cover of the tuner it would 
be sitting on top of in order to prevent 
shorting of the power I hooked up the 
antenna, speaker/mike, and a 12 V 




Photo B* The finished WM-20 SSB transceiver 
34 73 Amateur Radio Today * November 1999 



gel-cell. The rig came to life instantly. 
I pressed the "SPOT" button to hear 
what frequency I was on. 1 tuned 
around and found the receiver to be 
working well. I heard a station just 
signing off. Using an old technique I 
employ, 1 waited until both hums had 
just signed off and a bit more to make 
sure the frequency wasn't being used, I 
then asked if the frequency was in use, 
I did this several times. The other ham 
came back to me and told me to go 
ahead. This was really exciting. I was 
getting out and could be heard and un- 
derstood! Still feeling very excited, I 
gave out my callsign. He came back to 
me and said my signal was weak, but 
we exchanged information success- 
fully. Later, I put the case together. This 
is simply a matter of sliding the board 
onto rails in the case and attaching the 
front and rear panels with four screws. 
Once I got the kit completed. I 
waited to have some time to test it out. 
The next Saturday provided me the op- 
portunity. There was a big interna- 
tional contest on the air. I don't keep 
track of them, so not sure which one it 
was. The 20 meter band wasn't great 
but it wasn't too bad either. I tuned 
around for loud signal. I heard a US 
station and gave him a call. He came 
back to me. 

I had to repeat my information a few 
times, but completed the contact. I 
made four more US contacts. That 
night I got on and heard a station from 
Hungary, I needed to repeat my call 
and information a few times, but 
completed the call. 

The front panel layout of die case has 
a set of mike/speaker jacks, an AF gain 

control, a spot 
push-button for the 
frequency counter. 
and a tune knob. 
The back has a 
BNC antenna con- 
nector and the 
power jack. I 
wanted to be able 
to leave the rig 
attached to the 
battery and still 
be able to turn the 
power on and off, 
I did not have a 



replacement I Ok pot with an on/off 
switch, which would have been my 
first choice, so I installed a small 

toggle switch on the rear panel There 
was plenty of room on the back panel. 
1 simply drilled a hole and cut the 
power cord inside the rig. 

The entire rig is very small and light- 
weight. It was fun to build and works 
well. Besides the addition of the on/oflf 
power switch, 

I would personally like to see a bit 
more power. I am ahlc to make contacts 
under good conditions, but the power 
is just a bit low for reliable use. I be- 
lieve that in order to keep the rig so 
small. Dave had some design con- 
straints. I usually like to work as little 
power as possible. 

On CW you can use very little power 
and still make plenty of contacts. I 
have found that you need a bit more 
power on SSB to get through. 

To test how much difference a few 
more watts will make in my ability to 
make contacts, 

I am going to do something 1 have 
not done before: My next project is 
going to be to build an amplifier to 
get the power up to about 8 watts or 
so. 

Specifications 

• IF: 9.83 MHz (75m or 40m), 8.00 MHz 
(20m) 

•Tx/Rx crystal filters: 2.3 kHz BW 

• Receiver MDS: -128 dBm (0. 1 jiV) 

• Two-tone dynamic range: 90 dB 

• Image rejection: 70 dB 

• Frequency coverage: 1 80 kHz nomi- 
nal (20m , 75 m) 

• Cold start drift (typ j: 300 Hz 

• Transmitter power out: 3—4 W PEP 

• Carrier suppression -40 dB: no ad- 
justment required 

• Transmitter harmonics/spuis: -45 dBc 

• Transmitter MD3 (2-tonc): -36 dB 
PEP(@3WPEP) 

• Power requirements: 12-14 VDC @ 
1 20mA (receive). 1A peak (tx) 

For further information about this 
product, contact Small Wonders Labs, 
Dave Benson NN 1 G, 80 East Robbins 
Ave., Newington CT 06111. E-mail: 
[dave@smallwondcrIabs.comJ. 



Number 35 on your Feedback card 



No Bum Steer 

Maximize your loop s performance the easy way. 



Howard Shepherd W6US 

P.O. Box 607 
Mc Arthur CA 96056-0607 



The full wavelength horizontal 
square loop has received good 
marks from the amateur radio 
fraternity. When fed with a high qual- 
ity open wire transmission line, it is an 
excellent performer, capable of multi- 
band operation (see Notes 1 and 2). 

An 80 meter loop gives very good 
DX on the higher frequency bands, ex- 
hibiting gains comparable to vagi ar- 
rays. It does exhibit two lobes on its 
fundamental and an increasingly larger 
number of lobes and associated nulls as 
higher multiple frequencies are used, 

Quite often, due to physical layout 
limitations, such lobe and null struc- 
ture greatly limits good QSOs in de- 
sired directions. This article offers a 
means whereby alternate lobe and null 
directions can be easily obtained by 
"steering/' regardless of the original 
physical orientation of the loop- 
In approaching this subject the 
usual caveats apply — namely the ef- 
fects of ground topography and the 
presence of nearby antennas and con- 
ducting structures, all of which will al- 
ter the azimuthal and elevation 
patterns described. This information 
was developed using computer-aided 
design methods, so because there may 



be program imperfections coupled 
with necessary assumptions, the re- 
sults need to be classified as approxi- 
mations (see Notes 3 and 4). Despite 
such warnings, the material presented 
is, as the saying goes, "good enough 
for government work," 

Refer to Fig. 1. The data presented 
here is based on a full- wave horizontal 
square loop, resonant at 3.9 MHz. On 
75/80 meters, such a loop exhibits a 
single elliptical lobe pattern with its 
signal maximums approximately 5 dB 
greater than its mini mums when an el- 
evation angle of 45 degrees is calcu- 
lated. Obviously, 5 dB are very 
important on this band, so orientation 
of the loop becomes a major factor. 
When the horizontal polarization alone 
is examined, as distinguished from 
" total" radiation, the result of chang- 
ing the feedpoint is much more dra- 
matic, as shown in Figs. 2 and 3, The 
vertical polarization shows a similar 
pattern rotated by 90 degrees. 

The purpose of this article is to sug- 
gest how an amateur who is restricted 
to a given orientation can still "steer" 
the azimuthal pattern of the loop to 
maximize the signal in his favored di- 
rection. When multiband operation is 






used, this becomes even more impor- 
tant, as the lobes are narrower and the 
nulls much deeper. 

Fig. 1 depicts a plot plan of the loop. 
For convenience, and to provide a ref- 
erence, it is assumed that the orienta- 
tion is such that the axis A to C is from 
south to north. As shown, the initial 
feedpoint is at corner A. The wires are 
numbered 1 through 4 for convenience 
in calculation. In this arrangement, the 
radiation at the 45 degree elevation 
angle (equivalent to a QSO distance of 
about 700 miles) forms an ellipse with 
its maxima through the axis of A and 



B 




D 



73 



Fig. I. A plot plan of the loop. 

Amateur Radio Today • November 1999 35 



88/75 H LOOP AT 66 


338* x ^ > ^^ — ^^V "--. 38 " 


GROUND 26 38 


FT C73 HAG) 


Azinuth 




v-mJr ^t" 






/ dB /\ 

I • i V « 
-F '- - \ 




380* ■■"' 


/ \ '■ 

/ , .... -10- ... \ 


68* 


■-.. 

- 

■- ■ 
9 


- 1 '.'-.» 

* * . - / * +■ 
, i ■ ■, ■> 

\ - ' / ■ , *-. .. 1 

\ '"■-. * \ ■- **2B ■•■ ... / * v-"* / 

V *V1 * ■ V 


i 
i 

a 
ft 

II 
■ 
a 

* 


* 


jf\_ * . - _^ %- r- ■, / - . 




I 


"V TO . V^ 


a 

* 


7TH* :.... ..**- 


a »». - ■ ■ a 


■ ,■ ■ _£_ii"*^^ 


98* 


4t/o ;*«■■■«■■ 


_-**^~^ 


4 


. J >- rfr ^ - ■ ■ ■'-.'■ ^v 




1 

i ■ 


* * * ■ • v . ■ • . " * - ■■ + X ■ 

/ "•■ ," > ■ . ''■ \ - 


■ 

at 

.* 1 

■ 

a 
- 
4 


' * 


/ ■ .■■ ■ ■■>: ■ . : ♦ y ■ \ 


J. 
1 


■ 
■ 


JT k 1 ■ ■ a . , 1 " 1 1 ' ■ 

I** \ * - ■■.,.,..■ * - .- ► ! 

-■f '- * ■' ■* V-- 

+ j * ■ ■ ■ ■ * ii 


I 
p 


s 




a 
P 

m 


240* 


.1 "". . J" 


120* 




\ ft 


/ 






\ 

\ 

1l a 


/ 


■ 


v, 


\ / 






V "/ 








Horizontal 


45.8' Elevation 
8 dB = 5.52 dBl 


r a i ^ a p ' 
"■■-lliill.il^"'"" 


Field 

3,900 5Hz 



Fi^ t 2. Loop fed at A or C 

C. and its 5 dB down minima on the 
axis B lo D. In applying this to your 
own installation you can ask yourself 
if such a pattern is best for your favored 
QSO azimuth, 

If, for example, you would prefer to 
have your best distant signal on the B 
to D axis, this could be easily accom- 
plished by moving the feedpoint to 
either corner B or D. 

Table 1 shows how other intermedi- 
ate azimuths can be selected by an 



appropriate choice of feedpoint. While 
it is tme that the bcamwidth of this 
loop on 75/80 meters is quite broad, 
the principle of "steering*" the lobes 
becomes extremely important when 
multiband operation on higher fre- 
quency bands is contemplated. It does 
show the latitude of feedpoint selec- 
tion so as to optimize feedline length 
while still maximizing the signal in the 
desired general direction. It should 
also be noted that placing the loop at 



88/75 n LOOP AT 68 
FT (73 HAG) 



„■■■**- 



338* 






38* 



GROUND 28 30 
Azimuth 



dB 



278* 




45.8* Elevation 
dB = 5.52 dBl 



218' '""-..., 



158' 



Horizontal 
Field 

3.900 MHz 



1 - - i a I - - i " 



Fig. 3. Loop fed at B or D. 

36 73 Amateur Radio Today • November 1999 



Feedpoint 


Max. Signal 
Azimuth 
(degrees) 


A 


90-270 


25% from A to B 


1 1 0-290 


Center of wire #1 


137-317 


75% from A to B 


16CK340 


B 


0-180 


25% from B to C 


21-201 


Center of wire #2 


43-223 


75% from B to C 


68-246 


C 


90-270 


25% from C to D 


1 1 0-290 


Center of wire #3 


137-317 


75% from C to D 


1 60-340 


D 


0-180 


25% from D to A 


21-201 


Center of wire #4 


43-223 


75% from D to A 


68-248 



Table 1, Other intermediate azimuths can 
he selected by an appropriate choice of 
feedpoint. (Refer to Fig. 1.) 

different heights above the ground will 
not change the azimuth pattern, but will 

Continued on page 44 



Feedpoint 


Main Lobe 

Azimuth 

(degrees) 


Null 

Azimuth 
(degrees) 


A 


0-90-180- 
270 


57-1 25- ' 
235-308 i 


25% from 
A to B 


36-126- 
216-308 


84-1 67- 
267-348 


Center of 
wire #1 


45-1 35- 
225-315 


91-180- 
273-357 


75% from 
AtoB 


54-142- 
234-322 


102-183- | 
283-6 


B 


0-90-180- 
270 


147-214- 
324 


25% from 
BtoC 


36-126- 
216-308 


77-1 77- 
258-354 


Center of 
wire #2 


45-135- 
225-315 


91-180- 
273-357 


75% from 
BtoC 


54-142- 
234-322 


102-183- 
283-6 



Table Z Repetition occurs when this 3.9 
MHz loop is operated on 40 meters, 



Number 37 on your Feedback card 



Secrets of Transmission Lines 

Part 4: Traveling waves and some thought experiments. 



John A. Kuecken KE2QJ 

2 Round Trail Drive 
Pittsford NY 14534 



As we move into the area of 
transmission lines, we will be 
venturing into a somewhat 
Jilfcrent mode of circuit consider- 
ations. Bv and large, radios, televi- 
sions, and home appliances are made 
up of discrete components — capaci- 
tors, resistors, integrated circuits, and 
oilier neat little packages. All are items 
dial can he described in some physical 
location and all are generally small 
with respect to the wavelength at 
which they are working. 

Transmission lines are different in 
that they are described as items having 
"distributed parameters," meaning that 
they are not necessarily in one single 
location. Furthermore, l heir dimen- 
sions are frequently large with respect 
to the wavelength at which they are 
working. For this reason the signal 
properties often vary with the location 
along the line. 

The most fundamental properties of 
transmission lines were developed in 
connection with telegraphy; therefore, 
the general descriptions are referred to 
as "Kelvin's Telegraphers' Equations." 
The telegraph was patented by Samuel 
F.B. Morse in 1 840 and the first test line 
between Baltimore and Washington was 



constructed in 1843, Western Union 
was founded from 12 different tele- 
graph companies in 1856, and by 1869 
telegraph lines were extended across 
the continent. 

There were three failed attempts to 
lay a transatlantic telegraph cable, and 
in 1858 a working cable was laid. It 
lasted only a few weeks before failing. 
Even without the electrical failure, the 
cable was a business failure because of 
the extreme slowness. 

Signal strength was not a problem. 
The mirror galvanometer invented by 
William Thompson 
gave a more than 
adequate deflec- 
tion. The problem 
was that at any 
significant send* 
ing speed the char- 
acters muddled up 
with one another 
and became un- 
readable. It took 
more than an 
hour to send birth- 
day greetings from 
Queen Victoria lo 
President James 
Buchanan. 



At the urging of Queen Victoria, 
Thompson was made engineer-in- 
charge of the cable project. His math- 
ematical analysis led to the design of a 
cable with vastly improved electrical 
performance. In I Kno, Cyras Field or- 
ganized another attempt using The 
Great Eastern, the largest ship then 
afloat. An improved cubic connec- 
tion was completed. This was both a 
technical and financial success, and 
Thompson was knighted by the queen 

Continued on page 38 




Fig. J. Traveling waves. Wave velocity is Y(T/ W) meters/sec. 
where T = tension in new tons and W - mass of cord in kg/m. 

73 Amateur Radio Today • November 1999 37 




PHYSICAL REPRESENTATION 




Ax 



ELECTRICAL REPRESENTATION 



Fig. 2, Physical and electrical representations of an infinitely 
long electrical line consisting of two parallel conductors, R - re- 
sistance in ohms per unit length. L — inductance in henrys per 
unit length. G = conductance in Siemens (reciprocal ohms) per 
unit length* C - capacitance in farads per unit length. 



as Lord William Thompson Kelvin for 
his brilliant work, 

A physical example 

In order 10 give a physical "feel" to 
some of the work lo follow, we will 
digress for a bit into a physical ex- 
ample. The illustration of Fig. 1 shows 
the basic experiment. A cord is tied lo 
a distant solid object and stretched 
over to another solid anchor point. A 
pulley is shown here, but it is not re- 
ally necessary, 

A weight is used to apply tension to 
the cord. The son of cord used for 
traverse drapes or Venetian blinds, wo- 
ven cotton about 1/8-inch in diameter. 
38 73 Amateur Radio Today » November 1999 



is a good choice. 
For tension, we 
would like lo have 
something on the 
order of 75 to 100 
lbs. My auto tool- 
box weighs about 
78 lbs, and worked 
fine. Support the 
weight on a box or 
something while 
tying the cord in 
place. Then re- 
move the support 
and let the weight 
stretch the cord. 
Nylon cord does 
not work well be- 
cause it stretches 
too easilv. Reszard- 
less of the things 
you have avail- 
able to anchor the 
cord to or how 
you obtain the nec- 
essary tension. I 
would soon sly rec- 
ommend that you 
actually perform 
the experiment 
rather than just 
read about it 

In the experi- 
ment, pluck the 
cord near the 
weighted end with 
a considerable dis- 
placement. When 
you let it go, you 
will see a "wave" 
or displacement go flying down the 
length of the cord to the far end. It will 
bounce or reflect off the far tree and 
come flying back to the weighted end, 
where it will again reflect and head for 
the far tree. You should be able to fol- 
low several transits. The first point is 
that the cord will sustain waves going 
both forward and backward. The sec- 
ond point is that the wave will reflect 
off of the ends of the cord, which are 
fixed in place and cannot move. 

Next take a folded blanket or similar 
soft article like a sweater and drape it 
over the cord at the end opposite the 
pulley. In this case, we have given the 
wave a mechanism to absorb the wave 
energy and the reflection will be cither 



absent or small. If an observer were 
unable to see the far end of the line, he 
would infer from the absence of a re- 
flected wave that the line was infi- 
nitely long. We shall see the parallels 
to this in an electrical transmission 
line- If you wish to carry the experi- 
ment further, you could try different 
tensions and establish the fact that the 
wave velocity is proportional to the 
square root of the tension and inversely 
proportional to the mass of the cord. 

Remove the damping from the cord 
and pluck the string in the center. In 
this case, you will see two waves go 
flying away; they will reflect off the 
ends and pass through one another in 
the center, thus demonstrating that two 
waves can pass through one another in 
opposite directions. This may also per- 
sist through several complete cycles. 
When you plucked the cord near the 
end, the wave portion reflected almost 
immediately and combined with what 
appeared to be the single outgoing wave. 

Now electrical 

Having physically seen some of the 
transmission line phenomena, lei us 
now try to relate these observations to 
electrical transmission lines. The illus- 
tration of Fig, 2 shows a physical pic- 
ture of the line along with an electrical 
equivalent circuit of the line. In some 
segment of the line delta x, we have a 
resistance and inductance in series, 
and a conductance and a capacitance 
in shunt. The inductance is due to the 
magnetic field surrounding the wires 
following Ampere's law, and the ca- 
pacitance is due to the electrostatic 
flux between the conductors. The se- 
ries resistance is due lo the fact that the 
wires are not perfect conductors, and 
the conductance is due lo the fact that 
the space between the wires is not a 
perfect insulator. 

Note that in order to charge the ca- 
pacitor, the current niuM flow through 
the inductance and resistance. At this 
point in the treatment of Kelvin's Te- 
legraphers' Equations, it is usual to 
branch off into partial differential 
equations and use a proof, which is ac- 
tually simpler than the one used by 
Kelvin, because it uses tools not avail- 
able to him at the time, However, for 



ihe purposes of this series I am going 
to present only the significant results 
using an appeal to rational observa- 
tion. For those with the desire to see a 
proof easily available to hams I can re- 
fer you to chapter 16 in my book Anten- 
nas and Transmission Lines, published 
by MET Publishing (#MFJ3305), There 
are also many academic references 
available, 

Getting back to the example of Fig. 
2, when we close the switch, what do 
you suppose happens? With a resistive 
circuit, we know that the relationship 
between the voltage and the current is 
determined by Ohms law, but here we 
have an unending string of elements. 
And consider that even if the line is 
not infinitely long, it still takes some 
time for the current to flow from the 
battery end to the far end before the 
current can discover what the load or 
termination is. What determines the 
current in the mean time? If we sim- 
plify the matter by assuming that R 
and G are negligibly small, the answer 
to this question is given by; 



if = 



V(L/C) 



(4-1) 



where 

i f = current in the forward wave 

E r = forward wave voltage 



Note that both L and E, can be func- 
tions of time. The period it takes the 
wave to make a round-trip transit of 
the line E f in the example is equal to 
the battery voltage. The subscript f s 
meaning forward, is something we 
shall explain sh ortly. 

The term ^(L/C) is called the 
characteristic or surge impedance of 
the line. It is measured in ohms. It is 
usually designated as Z (J and sometimes 
referred to in speech as **Z naught/* It 
is determined by the physical charac- 
teristics of the line. 

For example, in the illustrated line 
of Fig, 2, if you were to leave the cen- 
ter-to-center spacing constant and de- 
crease the diameter of the wires, the 
inductance per meter would increase, the 
capacitance per meter would decrease, 
and the characteristic impedance of the 



line would rise. If you were to leave 
the wire diameters constant and de- 
crease the spacing, the capacitance 
would rise and the line characteristic 
impedance would fall. 

This is the impedance that would be 
presented by a line that is infinitely long. 
If we remember what happened when 
we placed the blanket on the far end of 
the cord, it is also the impedance that 
would be presented if the line is termi- 
nated in a load resistor equal to the char- 
acteristic impedance. This resistor ab- 
sorbs all the power in the forward wave 
so that there is no reflected wave. It is 
not possible to determine by electri- 
cal measurement the actual length of a 
line terminated in a resistor exactly 
equal to the characteristic impedance* 

Velocity of propagation 

If Z is determined by L and C, it 
also seems logical that the velocity of 
propagation should be determined by 
these same parameters. As a matter of 
fact, the velocity is given by: 



v = 



1 



^/<^*cj 



meters per second 



(4-2) 



In free space, it is possible to sepa- 
rately measure the inductance per 
meter using current measurements, and 
the capacitance per meter using electro- 
static measurements. The values are: 

Ho = 4 n * 1 0~ 7 henry per meter 
and 

1 g 

£q = tt~ x 10 farads per meter 
36ic 

These parameters are usually re- 
ferred to in speech as mu naught and 
epsilon naught. If we insert these val- 
ues into eqn (4-2), we obtain a velocity 
of 3*10* meters per second, the velocity 
of light in free space. 

In a similar fashion, if we insert the 
values into equation (4-1), we obtain a 
characteristic impedance of 377 ohms 
for free space. This determines the ratio 
of the electric field to the magnetic 




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73 Amateur Radio Today * November 1999 39 




Fig. 3. Plot of the traveling waves: constructive addition* 




Fig. 4. Destructive addition of two waves. 



field in an electromagnetic wave, be it 
light or radio propagating through a 
vacuum. 

Forward and backward waves 

As we saw from our cord experi- 
ment, it is usual to have both forward 
and backward waves on a transmission 
line. As a matter of fact the actual solu- 
tion for the telegraphers' equation 
works out as follows for voltage and 
current at point x at time I: 

E x = E f *[t - (x/v)] + E h *[t + (x/v)] 
(4-3) 

i, = (E/Z o )*rt - (x/v)] + (E,/Z a )*[i + 

(x/v)] 

(4-4) 

If we use the normal convention thai 
zero is at the left-hand edge of the pa- 
per and x increases going to the right, 
we can do a bit of interpreting of these 
equations. The term (x/v) describes a 
period of time. If the wave on the cord 
were traveling at a rate of v = 1 meter 
per second, then to travel to a point 
where x = 2 meters would take two 
seconds. Therefore, a point 2 meters lo 
the right of the origin would be two 
seconds behind what was going on at 
the origin, and the total term [t - (x/v)] 
describes a wave going to the right. It 
follows that the term [l + (x/v)] describes 
a wave going to the left. 

40 73 Amateur Radio Today * November 1999 



From this, the E f is a forward wave 
going left to right, and E b is a back- 
ward wave going right to left. Equa- 
tion (4-4) could have been written with 
i f and i , However, I elected to use the 
voltages and the line Z ft to emphasize 
the fact that the current is determined 
by the voltage and Z ft _ 

A pictorial example 

The illustrations of Figs. 3 and 4 are 
intended to make the point about the 
forward and reverse waves visually. 
For our purposes, I have elected to use 
the Gauss Error Function for a wave 
shape. In this example: 

where e = natural log base = 2.7183 
(4-5) 

The Gauss Error Function has a 
single peak of amplitude one from mi- 
nus to plus infinity, and it approxi- 
mates a single cycle cut from a sine 
wave wilhin a few percent between - 
2<t<2, Because of the single cycle, it 
is easier to follow than a sine wave, as 
we shall eventually see. It is a reason- 
able representation of the displace- 
ment wave in the cord if the cord is 
snapped out suddenly. The shape is 
easily seen in Fig. 3, 

In Fig- 3, let us presume that we 
have plucked the cord in the center. 
Two waves flee to the ends and are 



reflected. The one on the left is going 
right and the one on the right is going 
left. You can view the successive traces 
going from top to bottom as separate 
frames of a movie. As an alternative, you 
can view the entire picture as a snapshot 
of two straight-fronted waves in a lake 
passing through one another at an angle, 
The latter view benefits from an opti- 
cal illusion if you hold the hook so that 
one of the wavefronts is nearly in the 
line of sight. You will note that the 
waves pass right through one another. 
At the instant that they cross, the am- 
plitude is doubled, but before and after 
the crossing, they are unaltered. 

In Fig- 4, the only change is the fact 
that the backward wave is reversed in 
sign: that is, it goes negative rather than 
positive. The interesting point here is the 
fact that when the waves cross, they 
completely cancel at one point but 
emerge unscathed after the crossing. In 
fact, ai any instant in time there is only 
one point that is zero; however, at the 
point where the deflection is zero, the 
transverse (up and down) velocity' of 
the cord is maximum. The zero point 
slides through the two waves. 

Conclusion 

In the next part, we will amplify 
some of these concepts to develop the 
idea of the steady state conditions of 
the transmission line and the existence 
of standing w ? aves. 



Number 41 on your Feedback card 



The History of Ham Radio 



Part 3: 1920-2L 



By Eric G. Shalkhausser W9CI, SK 



Amateur radio conventions and 
regional get-togethers back in 
the beginning 1920s were real 

■w- •- 

festivities. The spirit which prevailed 
did so imbue all who attended that a 
broad new enthusiasm was born and 
dominated throughout amateur radio 
land in America. 

Reference was made in our last in- 
stallment to the 1 920 grand finale con- 
vention in St, Louis. To prove that all 

Reprinted from 73 Amateur Radio, 
May 1977, where this was originally 
reprinted from QCC News, a publica- 
tion of the Chicago Area Chapter of 
the QCWA, 




the big- wigs, as well as hundreds of 
the hoi-poDoi, were present, here is re- 
produced thai convention's "Programme 
of Events/' 

Ii would be to the everlasting glory 
of the proverbial Old Man should any 
of the sparks of recording effort be 
transplanted into the pages of amateur 
history in the future. Probably nothing 
would surpass the account written in 
QST February, 1921, pages 9 to 23. 

For now, my notebook contains the 
following account of The American 
Radio Relay League Convention, as 
originally written and recorded in 



Division of the 
American Radio 
Relay League held 



January, 1921: 
'The Midwest 



its convention in St. Louis, Missouri, 
December 28, 29, and 30, 1 920. Rep- 
resentatives from all sections of the 
country were there, including all of the 
nine radio districts in the country. 
Never before in the history of the 
League has such a successful meeting 
in the interest of radio taken place. For 
three days old and young met, in most 
cases for the first rime, although they 
had known each other for years. 

"Hiram Percy Maxim, well-known 
scientist and inventor, and President of 
the League, opened the convention 
with an address. Mr. Stewart, our rep- 
resentative in Washington, outlined 
the legislative situation, pointing out 
how the Poindexter Bill recently intro- 
duced in Congress is threatening the 



Midweju A, B^ R. h> Convention 

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* H MM rikt 



Tin HI i "tJ it.iJleI :bi fc.il c*JV *f IWP» 14f mil* *% f 

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'"ill -iI'MXlifl- Tmm naM-rh* ti,\ n't-« l*a ™ri U Ur 
Mt<>ttL Pi« fit mvi'vn^T.Ml^ m A_4M Ahpl'hn r«hti 

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k-JL, 

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«Q»f fC^^t - * 



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m- — — -. . 



f/je Pioneer 



display of early amateur radio memorabilia now at 
Village Museum in Minden NE* 



L 



I 



Photo B» Midwest ARRL Convention Programme of Events, 
December 1920. 

73 AmafBur Radio Today ■ November 1999 41 




Photo C. A selection of early vacuum mhes — a far cry from the 
ultra-miniature transistors and ICs of today. 



existence of amateur radio operators 

and experimenters. A committee was 
appointed to draw up definite resolu- 
tions to be sent to Washington protest- 
ing against the passage of the bill. Mr. 
Warner, Secretary and Editor of QSZ 
gave a resume of our growth from its 
inception only a few years prior to the 
war up to the present time. He stated 
that membership of over 50,000 has 
placed the organization in a position 
where it ranks as one of the largest in 
the country. 
"The technical meeting was held on 




Photo D* Public relations were as important in the early days of 
amateur radio as they are today. In 1922. a group from the Radio 
Club of America set up and manned this booth at a radio show in 
Grand Central Palace in New York City. 

42 73 Amateur Radio Today • November 1999 



the 27th. Among 
the listed speak- 
ers were Mr. B. 
West 8AEZ, naval 
radio aide and au- 
thority on spark 
dischargers; Mr. 
Paul R, Godley, 
chief designing en- 
gineer for The Ra- 
dio Corporation of America; and Mr 
R.H.G. Mathews, ninth district super- 
intendent of the League. Topics dis- 
cussed were in connection with appar- 
atus used in amateur radio stations. 

Since all amateur 
stations in the 
country are re- 
stricted by law to 
operate on a wave- 
length not exceed- 
in £ two hundred 
meters and an in- 
put not exceeding 
one kilowatt, it is 
essential that all 
energy put into a 
set be used to best 
advantage. The 
maximum effi- 
ciency can be ob- 
tained only when 
apparatus is de- 
signed accurately 




Photo E. The "ideal" amateur station in 1920, consisting of one 
transmitter and two receivers. One receiver uses an electrolytic 
detector and telephone set, The transmitter utilizes a mercury in- 
terrupter and an open core transformer. 



and with special attention to details. 
The realm of radio is still wide open to 
improvements with new discoveries 
continually being made. 

"Perhaps of greatest interest was the 
short but spellbinding address given 
by Mr. Haddaway. a young man seven- 
teen vears old. This lad came from a 

ft 

poor family. As a high school fresh- 
man, he had to use his spare lime to 
support the family. He gave us a de- 
scription of how he made the 'moon- 
shine bulb/ Despite various handicaps, 
he had built a complete and effective 
amateur radio station, located in a tiny 
closet in hack of his mother's kitchen. 
How did he go about accomplishing an 
impossible feat? Even" piece of 
equipment, including the individual 
components, were meticulously fabri- 
cated out of anything and everything 
imaginable. Even the headphones and 
tiny vacuum tubes were homemade. 



He had located a wholesale drug firm 
discarding waste mate rial and there 
found scraps of glass tubing, and bits 
of tungsten filaments from old lamps. 
With such parts, he made his vacuum 
lubes. He had built his own mercury 
pump to evacuate the tubes. He found 
the mercury from broken thermometers. 
His headphones were ingeniously fabri- 
cated from bits of wood, metal, and 
wire, but they performed beautifully. 
Everything else in his station, which 
was visited during the day, was very 
cleverly made and assembled. And his 
only financial expenditure was a 25 cent 
pair of combination pliers. I have met no 
one in my lifetime who has displayed 
such a passionate purpose to succeed, 

"The climax of the convention was 
the radio banquet. To our knowledge, 
it was the first of its kind ever given in 
the history of the League. The spirit 
was there all right! What the St Louis 
radio club did not think of was not 
worth considering. Even the menu sa- 
vored of sparks and ozone, none of it, 
however, being charged to very high 
voltage. Mr. Chandler of 8NG fame, 
Mr. B. West, and the President, H. P, 
Maxim, gave short addresses. Bill 
Wood of the St, Louis club acted as 
toastmaster To him as well as to the en- 
tire club is due the credit for the over- 
whelming success of the convention, 

'The keynote of the meetings 
seemed to be More Unity and More 
Cooperation between the various 
clubs and organization as a whole, in 
order to be able to stand behind any 
move which the League attempts to 
undertake. Every city in the country 
should have an organized radio club 
affiliated with the League. 

'The ARRL was organized with the 
intention of relaying messages from 
city to city, state to state, and ulti- 
mately from country to country. Mes- 
sages accepted for transmission are not 
charged for. Amateur radio operators 
do this as a service for the community 
and for mutual benefit because they 
have an interest in the development of 
radio as a ready means of communica- 
tion. The stations are privately owned 
and operated, in many cases entailing 
an expenditure of hundreds of dollars. 
To be able to communicate with others 



hundreds of miles away amply com- 
pensates the amateur for erecting a sta- 
tion. It affords one of the most 
fascinating and at the same time edu- 
cational fields of research to most any 
person interested in science. 

"Radio is indispensable in many of 
our present-day developments. Steam- 
ships and airplanes are lost if they 
have to do without the services of 
wireless. On railroad trains and auto- 
mobiles, its application will eventually 
revolutionize modern business prac- 
tices, just as the telegraph and the tele- 
phone have done. But to attempt to 
make far-reaching predictions, not 
even the most farsighted engineer can 
come anywhere within the actual facts 
which will he known ten years from 
now. [Remember that this was written 
in 1921.] Too little is understood of 
this greatest of all discoveries. That we 
will be able to talk directly with our 
friend riding in his car in another part 
of the country seems to be a dream still 
to be realized/' 

(End of 1921 written and recorded 
message.) 

To be continued. 






Why Not B-Morse? 

continued from page 18 

All of Ihese considerations induced 
me to conceive a new alphabet based 
on Morse code that I renamed B-Morse 
for the following reasons. In the word 
alphabet, the Greek letter Alpha (a) 
stands for the first two syllables, and 
the Greek letter Beta (6) makes for 
the last part of the same word . The 
two first syllables of the word having 
been rejected for lack of concise- 
ness, the remainder forms, with the 
word Morse, the neologism fi-Morse 
(Beta-Morse). 

This alphabet should be a source of 
motivation for Morse aficionados, as it 
is contributing to keeping Morse alive 
and well, at least in the mind of practi- 
tioners. It may be used in its handwrit- 
ten version or eventually in computer 
software and its multiple applications 
such as packet radio, RTTY, AMTGR, 
and so forth. Let me know what you 
think! 



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73 Amateur Radio Today * November 1999 43 



Building a Better Collins 

continued from page 23 

Can it be that good for only a buck? 

This is a foolproof project thai is re- 
warding because it saves big bucks 
and provides an added feature of inter- 
val timing thai is far more accurate 
than the original, heat-actuated relay. 
If you're thinking this is not true, lis- 
ten up. Surprising as it may seem, you 
can improve some things even in a 
Collins. 

If, in our solid state replacement 
module, the 120 VAC power is re- 
moved from the circuit with a momen- 
tary shutdown, the full 180 cycle 
beeins again. Thai is not the case with 
the luhc design. Because of the re- 
sidual heal remaining within the tube 
and components, the contacts do not 
release immediately. 

Actually, they remain in the closed 
position even after power is removed 
It takes a considerable amount of time 
for the metal to cool and the contactors 
to move apart. I have found thai there 
will be continuity tor up to a full minute 
after removing the heater volume. 

So what's the big deal, you say! The 
concern is that in certain unusual cir- 
cumstances this shutdown delav can 

4 

cause irreparable harm to the tube. If, 
for example, you required a rapid lube 
change, it's possible to apply high 
voltage to the newly installed final 
without the necessary delay time to get 
the cathodes up to speed Even if the 
contacts opened during the time you 
were installing the final tube, or you shin 
down temporarily for another reason, the 
residual heal with in the timer would 
shorten the delay by a considerable 
amount. 

Unless this timer tube were abso- 
lutely cold, you couldn't be certain. 
with any decree of accuracy, about the 
length of delay. In that scenario, the wait 
time would be shortened to a point 
where the integrity of the tube was at 
risk. With today's tube replacement cost 
sky high, you don't need that grief. 

It's a win-win retrofit project 



The bottom line is that there is no 
down side lo this project, so give my 
proposal a try. It's cheaper, better, less 

44 73 Amateur Radio * Today * November 1999 



heat producing, and more ego reward- 
ing than shelling out over a hundred- 
plus bucks to get the old gal up and 
running. 

If you're a Collins purisi and con- 
sider this project irreconcilable with 
your principles, try this approach on 
tor size. Pull your working OEM tube 
and store it safely on the shelf. Keep in 
mind that it's an extremely valuable 
asset with a finite life. Why waste it? 
Use my timer relay module until you 
decide to sell the rig or you've sched- 
uled a friend to visit the shack and lis- 
ten to your much deserved bragging 
about the details and tribulations of the 
restoration process. A safe time before 
the demo, pop in the OEM tube. I as- 
sure you no one will know the differ- 
ence, and I certainly won't tell. Good 
luck with the project and I'll see you 
around the Sunday afternoon Collins 
net (see the March 1999 QST for "The 
Collins Collector Association"). If you 
hear mc in there, don't hesitate to let 
me know how you made out with the 
project. 



avoid DC voltage conflicts. To avoid 
stray RF problems. I put the entire cir- 
cuit in a grounded metal box, and by- 
passed all of my incoming and 

outgoing leads (for which I was care- 
ul to use shielded cable). 



Basic Transceiver Tester 

continued from page 27 

The primary output voltage ("vol- 
ume*') is controlled by R6 and P3 + 
Both values were chosen because they 
are convenient ones easily found in 
most parts bins_ I also wanted rela- 
tively large values to avoid excessive 
loading of my circuit. Additionally, re- 
alizing that the output of a microphone 
is relatively low. I chose resistance 
values that would give me a 10:1 volt- 
age division, making the level setting 
on a cheap (and more readily avail- 
able) single-turn potentiometer much 
easier: with a 12- volt supply. I get a 
range of 0-U V. and approximately 
1 1 mA through R6/P3. 

Final assembly 

Most radio manufacturers and/or 
manuals provide data on how much in- 
put is required to a microphone's audio 
for full signal output, and I set the vol- 
ume level accordingly. Input and out- 
put capacitors to the audio amplifier 
aren't critical but are recommended to 



No Bum Steer 

continued from page 36 

affect the vertical angle of maximum 
radiation. 

You will observe that in Table 1, as 
you proceed clockwise around the 
loop from A to B to C and D. and back 
to A, the same pattern directions as are 
obtained from A to C are obtained 
from C to A. This results at the 3,9 MHz 
design frequency because of current 
distribution on the loop. Please note 
thai this effect does not occur when 
this same loop design is used in multi- 
kind operation. Table 2 shows how the 
repetition occurs when this 3.9 MHz 
loop is operated on 40 meters. 

At this point, consider just what oc- 
curs in such 40 meter operation. The 
following is referenced to 7.2 MHz. 
You will sec from Table 2 that the el- 
lipse-type pattern obtained on 3.9 MHz 
is now a four-segment pattern with 
major lobes at and 1 80 degrees, and 
minor ones at 90 and 270 degrees. 
Also, you gain four nulls at approxi- 
mately 57, 125, 235, and 308 decrees. 
The "steering" feature, by selecting dif- 
ferent fcedpoints. becomes extremely 
useful, particularly with regard to avoid- 
ing a deep (typically more than 8 dBj 
null in your favored direction. Ii is inter- 
esting to note that with one 7,2 MHz 
feed, this loop produces only three 
major lobes when fed al B, 

As noted with regard to Table 1. the 
lobes and nulls "repeat" as you pro- 
ceed around the loop, and for such rea- 
son, only half of the feedpoinls are 
shown in Table 2. By judicious selec- 
tion, considering the actual orientation 
of your own loop, you can again select 
a feedpoint to "steer" the lobes and 
nulls for your optimum directions. 

This same principle can be applied 
to 20 meters and higher frequency 
bands: however, there you arc dealing 
with an increasing number of lobes 
and nulls as you increase frequency. It 



would nol be a trivial engineering mai- 
ler lo pick a feedpoinl that would sat* 
isfy your lobe and null requirements 
for all bands simuliancuuslv. Confined 
to 80 and 40 meters, the problem is 
greatly simplified. 

Finally, there is the question of feed 
impedance. As previously noted, the 
height o\' the loop, and iis wire size, 
ground characteristics, and surround- 
ings, all affect the exact nature of the 
feedpoinl resistance and reactance. 
Fortunately, the use of quality open 
wire transmission line (nol 300 ohm 
twjnlead) and a good antenna tuning 
unit i ATI" i can overcome the match- 
ing problem isee Note 5). Good open 
wire lines can accommodate very high 
SWR with very little loss, even on 
long runs from the shack to the an- 
tenna. Moving your operating fre- 
quency within a band or from band to 
band will, of course, require a read- 
justment of the ATLL In extreme eases, 
a change in length of the transmission 
line may be required to allow your 
ATU to accommodate all bands. While 
these problems do exist, it is believed 
that the optimization of signals af- 
forded by this form of "steering" is 
well worth the effort. 

Notes 

1. DeMaw W1FB, "A Closer Look 
at Horizontal Loop Antennas," QST, 
May 1990. 

2. Fischer W0HMS ? "Loop Skywire," 
QST. Nov. 1985. 

3. EZNEC by Roy Lewallen W7EL 

4. A06.5 & NEC Wires 2.0 by Brian 
Beezley K6STL 

5. M. Waiter Maxwell W2DU, Re- 
flections, ARRL Pub,, 1990. 



QRH 

continued from page 8 

The Commission also amended the rules to 
eliminate what rt called ""now-unnecessary record 
keeping and station identification requirements'* 
that apply only to stations using spread spec- 
trum. The FCC agreed to let SS stations identify 
themselves using conventions developed by the 
amateur radio community, 

Roanoke Division Vice Director Dennis 
Bodson W4PWF, who has followed the League's 
Spread Spectrum initiative through from start to 



finish, was pleased with the outcome of the pro- 
ceeding. I'm very happy, " he said. The League 
got everything it wanted and more — all of which, 
I believe, will help to promote this mode on the 
amateur bands/ Bodson served as the ARRL 
Board liaison with the future systems committee 
and chaired the Ad Hoc Committee on Spread 
Spectrum, which was instrumental in develop- 
ing the League's stance on Spread Spectrum. 

Stations employing spread spectrum tech* 
niques will remain secondary to — and must 
accept all interference from — stations employ- 
ing other authorized modes. The FCC declined 
to authorize the use of spread spectrum tech- 
niques on additional bands or frequencies. 

A copy of the FCC's complete Report and Or- 
der is available at [http://www.arrl.org/announce/ 
regulatory/wt97-j. 

Thanks to Harmonics, newsletter of the South 
Jersey Radio Association. Sept. 1999. 



VCR Y2K 



If your VCR has a year setting on it which most 
do, you will probably not be able to use the pro- 
grammed recording feature after Dec. 31 , 1 999. 
Don't throw it away. Instead, set it for the year 
1 972 , as the days are the same as the year 2000. 
Manufacturers won't tell you this — since they 
are in business to sell Y2K VCRs, 

Thanks to Harmonics, newsletter of the South 
Jersey Radio Association, Sept. 1999- 



Polarized Sunglasses and 
LCD Displays 

Finally, at the end of the summer, after peer* 
ing through dozens of scratches in my eight-year- 
old sungiasses h I decided to purchase a new pair. 
The optometrist suggested polarized lenses, so 
I bought them. What a difference — much less 
squinting in direct sunlight and the glare from 
reflected light is dramatically reduced. 

However, I soon realized that I wasn't exactly 
looking at the world as I had been accustomed. 
Many rear and side windows of cars now take on 
a strange checkered pattern. Some windshields 
on oncoming cars are now a deep, almost iri- 
descent, blue-violel color. And at times, depend- 
ing on lighting conditions, portions of the road 
surface appear to be raised into an exaggerated 
3-dimensional form. The windshield on my 
Goldwing is no longer clear — it has now taken 
on a multicolored rainbow tint, limiting my closeup 
view of the road. This instant change has been 
somewhat of a psychedelic experience for me, 
but the glare reduction and comfort of the new 
polarized sunglasses has been worth it. 

However, the biggest problem associated with 
wearing these new sunglasses is when I try to 
read the displays on some of my mobile trans- 
ceivers (Standard C5718DA. FT-900, Radio 
Shack SWR/Power meter, and Alinco DJ-599). 
The backlit liquid crystal displays on this equip- 
ment become difficult to impossible to read, de- 
pending on lighting conditions. Tilting my head 



to one side improves the situation a little, but 
when driving (especially in public view). I usually 
refrain from tilting my head to one side until my 
ear touches my shoulder. 

Here* a bit of information about polarization of 
light. 

Polarization is one of the fundamental prop- 
erties of light waves. It was discovered in 1808 
by E.L Malus, a French army engineer. He was 
fascinated by the optical properties of the crys- 
tal calcite and frequently carried a piece with him 
to demonstrate its properties to his friends. One 
afternoon, while looking through his crystal at the 
windows of the palace of Luxembourg, he no- 
ticed that the image changed as he rotated the 
crystal. He could not explain his observation but 
actuary had discovered that light was polarized 
by reflection. 

The principle of a polarized lens is best illus- 
trated by observing the use of Venetian blinds. 
The blinds block light at certain angles, while al- 
lowing light to transmit through selected angles. 
True polarization is achieved by shutting out 
100% of undesirable light and allowing 100% of 
desired light through. 

Light striking flat surfaces, such as water, 
snow, glass, or pavement, is reflected perpen- 
dicular to that surface. This reflected glare or 
polarized light is much more intense than nor- 
mal sunlight, irritating your eyes and inhibiting 
vision. Polarizing lenses have the unique ability 
to selectively eliminate glare, Through the hori- 
zontal alignment of polarizing micro crystals, 
these lenses block all vertical light, making po- 
larized lenses particularly suitable for water 
sports, cycling, and driving. 

Polarized lenses have been used in over one 
billion pair of sunglasses over the last 50 years 
and their use remains widespread today because 
they have a clear functional benefit for the wearer. 
Polarized lenses are the best way to eliminate 
both bothersome glare and dangerous UV light. 

Any pilots among us must beware of using 
polarized lenses in aircraft. Most aircraft windows 
are made of multiple layers of plastic. When 
viewed through polarized lenses, distortions and 
stress areas are visible — which can be distracting 
and dangerous. 

The LCD displays on our radios emit tight that 
is polarized. Apparently several of my radio dis- 
plays emit vertically polarized light, and my new 
sunglasses do an effective job of blocking this 
vertically polarized light, making the displays 
nearly invisible, I suggest that before you decide 
whether or not you want to have to deal with the 
effects of polarized lenses while driving and op- 
erating your ham radios, you should ask your 
optometrist if you can take a pair into your ve- 
hicle and give them a try. 

Thanks to author Mike Stone N1 VE; reprinted 
from the October 1998 issue of The Communi- 
cator, the monthly newsletter of the Central New 
Hampshire Amateur Radio Club. 



73 Ad Sales 

Cafl 

1-800-6778838 



73 Amateur Radio Today • November 1999 45 



Rboue & Beyond 



Number 46 on your Feedback card 



VHF and Above Operation 



C, L. Houghton WB6IGP 
San Diego Microwave Group 
6345 Badger Lake Ave. 
San Diego C A 921 19 
[clhough@pacbell.net! 



Microwave 10 GHz 
Contest preparations — 
Considerations for 
portable operation 

This last weekend in October 
was the ARRL 10 GHz and up 
microwave contest. I had lo 

scale back on my participation 
due to a recent knee injury that 
prevented my full involvement. 
However I was still able to op- 
erate on 10 GHz from my home 
location and made several con- 
tacts, keeping my feet wet and 
in the game. Only made a few 
contacts with an omni antenna 
at 10 GHz ut the home QTH. bul 
had lots of fun listening to liai- 
son contacts being set up here 
in Southern California. 

I have to credit those who 
packed up all their microwave 
gear and took it on a traveling 
expedition to great hilltop sites 
in this last ARRL It) GHz con- 
test, If you have never operated 
portable microwave, you are 
missing an opportunity for a lot 
of fun in the sun. at least here in 
Southern California. But sure, 
there are lots of things to set up 
prior to a hilltop expedition to 
make the trip a successful venture, 

Microwave being what it is, 
operation from a high spot in the 
clear means packing quite a bit 
of equipment up to this semire- 
mote high point for good micro- 
wave contacts. Not only does 
your converter have lo function 
well, but there are so many other 
aspects that need attention to 
ensure a good trip. 

First and foremost, for por- 
table operation you need a good 
source of power. Normally, re- 
mote power is derived from 12 
volt batteries. In some cases, 
several are connected in series 



for 24 volt operation when com- 
mercial TWT amplifiers are 
used for high output RF power 
in the 10 watt and above range. 
These TWT (Traveling Wave 
Tube) amplifiers' normal DC 
power requirements are set up 
for either 24 volts or 48 volts 
DC. Needless to say, at 48 volts 
that's a lot of 12 volt batteries 
to haul around to a remote site 
— making 24 volt operation a 
little more desirable. 

The batteries for reliable op- 
eration normally sit around for 
a year unless you have other 
uses for them on noncontest 
weekends. This means that a 
complete checkout of battery* 
capacity should be done to en- 
sure that your batteries will not 
fall Hat after a few hours of use. 
Normal!}, batteries with a ca- 
pacity of 25 lo 30 or more amp- 
hours are required, allowing you 
at least 10 to 12 hours of op- 
eration before recharge is re- 
quired. On such a battery stack 
for 24 volts, you have power 
taps at 12 volts for 2 meter liai- 
son power that on transmit 
draws several amps for high 
power rigs to 2 watt HTs that 
draw little on the battery current 

w 

budget. Add to this the 24 volt 
TWT current of 2 amps in 
standby and 5 amps in transmit, 
plus the power required to run 
the microwave converter, and 
they all add up fast. Usually, 
with a TWT amplifier there is 
little thought of backpacking in 
a rig, as the weight of batteries 
required make the trip an ex- 
pedition rather than a trip to a 
hilltop site via automobile. 

The current budget can be re- 
duced quite a bit by using a solid 
state amplifier, reducing current 
consumption and still allowing 



for 1 watt of RF power from 
solid stale amplifiers. Back- 
packing to a high spot can be 
accomplished, as a battery of 

less weight and amp-hour ca- 
pacity can be employed. 

In either case, donU just 
charge your battery to get ready 
for remote operations. Rather, 
charge the battery and then hook 
it up to a dummy load resistor 
or even a string of automobile 
headlamps, to check the capac- 
ity of the battery you intend to 
use. Make readings of terminal 
voltage under a constant load, 
plotting just how much current 
i> a\ailable from the batterv 
under lest. As vou know; head- 

m 

lamps make a good test as they 
will deplete your car's battery if 
left on. Don't go out and pur- 
chase headlamps; instead, check 
with vour local service station 

_ 

for old ones that have one lamp 
burnt out — they will work fine 
for our application. 

I had an old, low-capacity 
YUASA 17 amp-hour battery 
that showed 6 amps or so of us- 
able capacity. It would charge 
bul was a soft battery for use. I 
left it for HTs and other low cur- 
rent uses. However, the story 
changed when I purchased a 
used garage sale Power Wheels 
battery-operated low-spectl 
kid's toy truck that our grand- 
children could sit in and ride. It 
was missing the batteries (2 
each 6 volts). Considering the 
form (si/e of battery required) 
factor, only the soft YUASA 
would till the bill for use in this 
truck. Sure enough, the kids 
drained the battery in short or- 
der, and 1 recharged it again and 
again after each use. They had 
lots of fun, and I learned a time- 
proven lesson again. 

After each recharging I no- 
ticed a very distinct change in 
battery life, and after the third 
charge/discharge cycle over two 
days' worth of use. the battery 
returned to its nearly 17 amp- 
hour capacity rating and did not 
show any signs of being *'$oft" 
anymore. This is not a NiCd but 
rather a gelled sealed battery. 
Don't know if this is normal for 
gelled cell batteries, bul it 



changed my evaluation of bat- 
teries and the charging methods 
to use. Considering that we nor- 
mally are working with used 
batteries, it's worth a shot to see 
if any improvement in capacity 
can be attained. 

Another good battery -related 
tip is to avoid clip leads for con- 
nection to your battery backs. 
While the clip leads work well, 
there is an inherent danger in 
connecting them up with re- 
versed polarity and inflicting 
damage to vour converter or the 
HT used for liaison. Use a stan- 
dard connector decided upon and 
make that connector your batter} 
connector. Use it on all DC re- 
quirement n lor 12 vol is. Select 
a separate connector for other 
requirements such as 24 volts, 

I use a three-contact connec- 
tor for 1 2 volts (one pin no con- 
nection) and a four-contact 
connector for 24 volts (2 pins no 
connection) to prevent them 
from being cross-connected. It 
has saved a serious problem 
from happening due to reverse 
polarity and wrong potential 
power problems in the Field. 
Check out your wiring in the 
shack at your leisure, and in the 
field it will noi be in error even 
under panic conditions, as only 
ilie correct connector will mate 
to proper power. 

Converter operation is also an 
item to cheek. How r w r ell is your 
receiver operating, and do you 
get rated power out of your 
transmitter? Simple checks hi 
the home shack can be made 
ahead of lime to prevent trouble 
in the field. Verify it and don't 
depend on how the rig operated 
last year. I have found even the 
venerable SMA connector or 
good-quality adapters in the RF 
path to show up after years of 
use as quite lossy. Some of the 
problems showed up in coaxial 
relays that failed a simple ohm- 
meter continuity check. Shake 
and bake is not just for chicken! 
For improved microwave enjoy- 
ment use the technique for your 
rig's checkout before going to a 
remote hilltop. 

Also, use a good-quality heavy 
tripod for your dish antenna 



46 73 Amateur Radio Today • November 1 999 



system and mount a compass 
rose even if you have to make 
one on a copy machine and 
mount ii on stiff cardboard to 
allow your pointing in a calcu- 
lated direction. This simple tool 
will greatly enhance your op- 
erating skill level and help you 
aim your antenna more accurately 
for distant stations. 

Seek the high ground, as 
while microwave does reflect 
off objects, it provides the best 
performance when operation is 
in the clear, high above foreign 
objects, buildings, and green 
foliage. Trees and other similar 
"green" foliage plants make 
great attenuators and as such are 
counterproductive to microwave 
ener^v. While shots can be made 
through trees and high bushes* 
they are still a good microwave 
absorber and attenuate our sig- 
nals, making contacts quite dif- 
ficult. Whenever possible, set up 
in the clear and avoid trees, 

I should take mv own advice 

m 

and not shoot through trees, but 
this was not the case for my par- 
ticipation this contest weekend. 
Being unable to load a dish and 
carry the batteries needed for 
portable operation, I attached an 
omnidirectional waveguide an- 
tenna in midiree, perched on a 
long stick and lashed to our kids' 
tree fort in our back yard, and 
was successful in working sev- 
eral stations on 10 GHz- Part of 
the success was because 1 was 
running 1 watts of power. Even 
with this power level I was able 
to only work local stations. The 
trees where the antenna was 
perched proved again to be very 
lossy and prevented me from 
working more distant stations. 
First and foremost, make 
checks to verify your microwave 
transceiver prior to venturing 
outdoors. Several weeks before 
anticipated operation, get to- 
gether with a buddy and check 
out your rig. Your shack is very 
forgiving to needed repairs and 
offers all ranges of tools and test 
equipment to do needed adjust- 
ments or repairs. Don't get 
caught using a rig that has been 
sitting on the shelf since last 
year's contest. Check it out and 



verify its operation and perfor- 
mance under actual contact 
conditions. 

The San Diego Microwave 
Group meets a month before 
contest time at Kerrv N61ZW"s 
home, where we all re-evaluate 
our microwave rigs to ensure 
that they rigs are operating at 
peak performance. We verify 
not just the rig functions, but 
that power output and dish, feed, 
and transmitter power are all in 
good alignment. We use a sys- 
tem that provides readings of 
detected power at a remote site 
some 100 feet distant. This an- 
tenna/rig test range is quite 
simple, and is nothing more than 
a small antenna coupled to an 
RF switch for both receive and 
transmit tests. In receive, w r e 
compare the station's ability to 
detect a low power signal source 
used to simulate a 144 MHz 
drive source, and varv the 
generator's power on transmit to 
the remote simple converter and 
determine minimum detectable 
signal strength on each 10 GH/ 

rig* 
This scale is charted out to 

accommodate different anten- 
nas* gains and such to make all 
di lie rent setups/antennas used, 
etc.. fit on this equalized play- 
ing field. We calculate the dif- 
ferences between calculated 
gains of the antennas used to 
expected power output so thai 
the final number crunched out 
relates to a total system quality 
factor. In practice, for receiver 
testing each system is set to de- 
tect a remote transceiver for 
which we control the drive sig- 
nal to arrive at a minimum dis- 
cernible signal level. We then 
figure in the antenna gain and 
other factors to see if this sys- 
tem is performing as well as it 
should. 

Considering the antenna gain 
and preamp noise figure, we can 
compare all rigs to each other 
by this minimum received dis- 
cernible signal level. This is re- 
lated to the 2 meter drive 
required to produce a low out- 
put signal at the test transmitter 
used for these tests. Receiver 
problems show up quite easily 



if there is a sensitivity problem. 
In actual tests, we w r ere able to 
set all tested receivers to within 
I to 2 dB of comparison perfor- 
mance specs, allowing for an- 
tenna differences (after several 
rigs included some toughening 
up to improve performance). 

On transmit, the remote is 
now a receiver, and we measure 
detected 144 MHz (the IF sig- 
nal) power on a power meter and 
derive actual recovered total 
system transmit performance. If 
the power recovered at the re- 
mote receiver is low. the trans- 
mi tting system needs some 
attention. The fault could lie in 
several areas. There could be a 
dish that is not being fed prop- 
erly, or trouble in coax relays or 
connectors, or even low perfor- 
mance amplifiers for output 
power. Each element needs 
some attention to determine 
where the performance im- 
provement can be made to bring 
the transmit system to proper 
operation. Again, allowances 



are made for power output and 
dish size in comparing all sta- 
tions tested. Test your station 
and determine if it is operating 
at peak performance before you 
venture out to a remote site- 
Trouble -testing your systems 
before going to a remote hilltop 
location is a very prudent step to 
ensure good system operation. 

Last and probably most im- 
portant is to take care of your 
comfort on a remote hilltop. 
Bring a chair and clothing to 
match unexpected conditions. 
Always overstock on liquids, 
sunscreen , and even a hal for 
your enjoyment. Bring several 
pencils or pens as you prefer If 
you have room, use a clipboard 
to hold your logging notes and 
other contest-related notes, 
plans, maps, and schedules. 

Most of all. be prepared for a 
great experience — hil hopping 
on microwave. Set up early, 
check out your equipment, and 
have a great time making cojv 
tacts. 73. Chuck WB6rGP. 



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CIRCLE 141 OM READER SERVK M \RD 

73 Amateur Radio Today * November 1999 47 



Number 48 on your Feedback card 



New Products 




Hamtronics Low-Noise 
Receiver Preamps 

Now you can hear the weak 
ones, too, and without spend- 
ing a fortune! Hamtronics' 
LNY series of preamps, which 
replaces the LNW, uses a new 
low-noise MOSFET specifi- 
cally optimized for best perfor- 
mance at VHF and UHF fre- 
quencies. The FLT has built-in 



diode protection and very low 
feedback capacitance, result- 
ing in good stability and rus- 
ged performance under a wide 
range of voltage, signal, and 
load impedance conditions. 

The PC board is only I x 2- 
1/2 inches, and the unit operates 
on +12 to +15 VDC at I OmA, 
Models are available for all 
popular bands from 28 MH2 to 
470 MHz. Factory wired and 
tested, S29 each. For further in- 
formation, contact Hamtronics. 
Inc.. 65-D Moul Rd., Hilton 
NY 14468-9535; tel. (7 16) 392- 
9430; fax (716) 392-9420; E- 
mail yv@ham-tronics.com]. 




ICOM's IC-2800H 

The IC-2800H dual-band FM transceiver has a unique full- 
color LCD display with user- selectable modes and video capa- 
bilities. But it's noi just pretty. With durable construction. 
installation flexibility, a bandscope function, 9600 bps packet, 
independent tuning controls, convenient memory editing, and 
more, it offers advanced functions, convenient features, and 
superior performance, 

The control head for the IC-2800H measures 5.5W x 2,75H x 
1 3D inches, while the main unit can fit under a car seat, at 5.5 W 
x 1.6H x 6,6D inches. The IC-2800H transmits 50 W on 144— 
148 MHz and 35 W on 430-450 MHz. 

For further info, contact ICOM America. Inc., 2380 1 1 6th Ave. 
NE, Bellevue WA 98004; tel. (425) 454-8155; site (www, 
jcomamerica.com]- 



I Your New Product Announcement Could Be Here! 
Send a photo and a brief description of your product to: 

73 Magazine 

70 Hancock Rd, 

Peterborough NH 03458 




Tippecanoe 
Model ZK-1 Key 

Robust as well as function- 
ally beautiful the Tippecanoe 
ZK-1 is reminiscent of the type 

of hand kev found on British 

M 

navy vessels. Two knobs arc 
provided — the flat topped for 
traditional styling and the 
round topped to reflect the 
British heritage. You may find 



that during extended operation, 
switching between styles can 
help to reduce hand stress and 
fatigue. 

Features include 3/8-inch- 
thick black granite base; solid 
brass key arm, pivot, and ad- 
justments; stainless steel ball 
bearings; bronze lock washers; 
ceramic knobs; and silver- 
plated contacts. Measure- 
ments: 4W x 6D x 3-1/4H 
inches; wl: 3 lbs. For price and 
further information, contact 
Tippecanoe Radio Company, 
PO Box 321, Tipp City OH 
45371: tel (937) 667-9399. 




Nighthawk Microlight II 

Wavesure, LLC. of Green- 
wich CT is proud to announce 
its release of the totally re -de* 
signed Nighthawk Microlight 
II. It is now available in five (5) 
new LED colors — white, 
green, red, amber, and infrared 
— thus making the new Night- 
hawk Microlight II one of 
America's best and most ver- 
satile hands-free illumination 
devices on the market today. 

The Nighthawk Microlight 
II incorporates design, func- 
tion, and reliability into this 

m 

next generation product. It i> 
constructed of high impact 
polycarbonate resin and is de- 
signed to be worn on any fin- 
ger or hat ... your choice (via 
a Velcro strap or accessory clip, 
respectively). It is so small and 
lightweight (it weighs appro*. 
1/10 of an ounce) that you don't 
even know you are wearing it. 
The Nighthawk Microlight II is 
so bright you will wonder how 
anything so small can generate 
tills much high intensity light. It 



is powered by 2 x 1.5-voll but- 
ton batteries that give you a con- 
tinuous burn ume of 15 hours. 

The original Nighthawk 
Microlight had been used by 
US military pilots for over 15 
years while Hying nighi sorties. 
The pilots use this device to il- 
luminate their cockpit controls 
while wearing nighl vision de- 
vices. The Nighthawk Micro- 
light II uses the same technol- 
ogy as the original, but only 
this time it has been built for 
more everyday use. 

Three years ago. the prin- 
ciple of Wavesure, LLC, Mr. 
Keith Lucas, brought this 
unique product to the con- 
sumer market. Since then, the 
Nighthawk Microlight and the 
Nighthawk Microlight II have 
found multiple applications in 
die marketplace, including uses 
in the boating, fishing, camping, 
hunting. Hying, theater, photog- 
raphy, astronomy, auto repair, 
DJ, airline maintenance, emer- 
gency, and law enforcement 
fields, just to name a few. 

It truly is an invaluable tool at 
work, at home, or at play. They 
say that "Next Generation Prod- 
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also their mission! Prices start at 
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For more info, contact 
Wavesure, LLC, PO Box 
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tel. (888) 650-3345: E-mail 
|info@wavesure,comj: Web 
site [www.wavesure.com]. 



48 73 Amateur Radio Today • November 1999 



Rduertisers' Indek 



R.S.# 



16 
41 



page 

All Electronics Corp 13 

Astron Corporation,,...... 1 

Barry electronics Corp 11 

42 Btlal Company 21 

56 Buckmaster Publishing 27 

168 Buckmaster Publishing 30 

Commu meat ion 

Concepts, Inc 31 

Communications 

Specialists. Inc 31 

276 Computer Aided 

Technology 53 

• Cutting Edge Ent . 15 

• Denver Amateur 

Radio Supply 17 



10 



R.S.# page 

1 3 DoppJer Systems .. 55 

E-Z Hang 51 

193 GGTE 49 

• HarrHronjcs, inc CV2 

• Heights Tower 

Systems > 39 

42 tsotron ». 21 

242 Jar Crystals .„.„... ., 21 

158 Japan Radio Co CV3 

• Kachina 

Communications, Inc. CV4 

86 MFJ Enterprises >.<„..,. ,,„ 2 

86 MFJ Enterprises 7 

• Michigan Radio .. 33 

160 Micro Computer Concepts 30 



R;S.# page 

1 36 Mi lestone Tech nologres - . , . 25 

136 Morse Express 25 

193 Morse Tutor Gold 49 

248 Matron Electronics 43 

• MultiFAX 23 

• Nexus ...... ... 57 

• Omega Sales . 27 

Omega Sales 54 

Omega Sales .., >.. 56 

R&L Electronics .„„. 9 

Radio Book Shop (tll 13 

Radio Book Shop ,„„„„„„. 23 

Radio Book Shop 43 

Radio Book Shop 45 



R.S.# 

■ Radio Book Shop 48 

• Radio Book Shop . „.,..». 49 

Radio Book Strap . ww 50 

Radio Book Shop 56 

• Radio Book Shop «. 63 

■ Radio Book Shop . „ 64 

34 Ramsey Electronics 5 

• RF Parts „„ 43 

254 Ross Distributing 43 

36 Scrambling News ...„..,.,.„. 30 
167 Sescom, Inc. 23 

■ The Ham Contact 25 

■ The Ham Contact , 49 

141 The Nicad Lady 47 

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73 Amateur Radio Today • November 1999 49 



On the Go 



Numbw SO on your Feedback card 



Mobile, Portable and Emergency Operation 

Steve Nowak KE8YN/4 
1011 Peacock Ave, NE 
Palm Bay FL 32907- 1371 
[He8yn@neuero.net] 



Floyd interrupts the 

routine 

By its very nature, emergen- 
cies are successfully managed 
only by having redundant capa- 
bilities. Likewise, we always 
have ihe need to use resources 
in an emergency that we may 
not use during ordinary times. 
A fire extinguisher sits on the 
wall receiving link or no atten- 
tion during ordinary limes, but 
is quickly retrieved and used 
when smoke or flame is noted. 
This same situation exists 
among ham radio operators dur- 
ing emergencies. Our very ser- 
vices as communicators are not 
relied upon during routine situ- 
ations, but become critical when 
Mother Nature or other forces 
interject their effects into every- 
day life. 

I was thinking about this the 
other day when Hurricane Floyd 
was in the news, Here in central 
Florida we were at risk of winds 
of up to 150 miles per hour if 
Floyd had followed the track 
that it was projected to take. 
Winds at that speed can evi- 
dently flatten a cinderbloek and 
stucco home as easily as a 
woodframe structure, Fortu- 
nately for us, the storm turned 
and did manage to lose some of 
its power before clobbering the 
Carolines. In preparation for the 
storm, amateur radio operators 
were covering the public service 
agencies, hospitals, shelters, and 
the National Weather Sen ice. 



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Now, the station at the 
weather bureau is great. There 
are two VHF rigs — one on a 
vertical, and the other on a 
beam. There are several comput- 
ers at the operating position, one 
of which can operate APRS, 
another of which shows the 
display of the NWS radar sys- 
tem. The station even has the 
perfect call— WX4MLB (MLB 
being the airport designator for 
the Melbourne, Florida airport 
where the weather station is lo- 
cated). This station has been 
well thought out and well sup- 
ported by both the Weather Ser- 
vice and the ham community, 
and could serve as a model for 
other facilities, Yet when facing 
an event like Hurricane Floyd, I 
found that redundancy was the 
name of Ihe game. 

Naturally, when I first arrived 
at the weather bureau I set one 
of the 2 meter radios onto the 
network frequency for disaster 
services. We had decided that 
until events dictated, we would 
utilize a single frequency rather 
than have Sky Warn on one and 
disaster services coordination 
on another. I set the other radio 
to APRS, which utilizes a packet 
terminal node controller (TNC) 
and displays a map indicating 
station locations; since some of 
the APRS stations have weather 
reporting systems. I thought this 
might be useful. For something 
as large as a threatening hurri- 
cane, the w r eather reporting was 
not as useful as in other situa- 
tions, which was just as well. 
The weather problems began to 
build in a manner w r here they 
threatened the counties to the 
south, so I switched that rig to 
their Sky Warn frequency and 
monitored the hams to the south. 



Naturally with a large storm 
and adequate warning, evacua- 
tion mav be advisable. The 
county mandated evacuation for 
the barrier islands and, given the 
potential for damage, many 
people elected to head for higher 
ground further inland. As the 
major roads and interstate high- 
ways began to clog, we found 
the need to stay in contact with 
disaster services stations to the 
north and west. I was requested 
by net control to establish con- 
tact with the Orlando area net. 
This meant swinging the beam 
from the south to the northwest 
and getting on Orlando's fre- 
quency, and using the vertical to 
keep in touch with the stations 
to the south. My personal 
handie-talkie then became the 
link to the local network. Natu- 
rally, I had brought my + 'Grab 
and Go" bag with me, and I had 
the HT set up with a 5/8-wave 
telescoping antenna in the desk 
charger with the speaker mike. 

Now, as you might expect, 
with three radios operating si- 
multaneously, things can get a 
bit confusing, The nets in Or- 
lando and the Treasure Coast net 
in the counties to our soutii were 
handling traffic that was not al- 
ways of interest to the weather 
service or disaster services. 

I decided to connect an ear- 
plug to the HT tuned to the lo- 
cal net so that I could focus a 
little more closely on the local 
situation. This was also helpful 
because there was a fair amount 
of extraneous noise as the 
weather forecasters tried to per- 
form their duties — especially 
when they held periodic confer- 
ence calls with other weather 
stations in order to determine the 
best information for tracking the 
hurricane. 

So in a very well-equipped 
facility, I had already begun to 
employ a fair amount of my own 
gear on top of the gear that was 
already on site. As I said, redun- 
dancy is the name of the game 
in an emergency! Perhaps this 
became even more obvious to 
me, because a few weeks before 
Floyd reared his ugly head, I had 
lost the display on my Kenwood 



TH-79A. Now, I really love this 
radio and think that it has many 
fine features, but the display has 
gone out on mc twice, and both 
times were at the height of hurri- 
cane season. Fortunately, the unit 
had gotten back from repair a few 
days earlier and was available. 
But what if it hadn't? 

Well, no true ham needs much 
of an excuse to obtain one more 
toy. In my case another in a 
seemingly endless succession of 
birthdays occurred and the YF 
(I still prefer that to XYL) 
bought me one of those new 
miniature-size HTs. Manv 
manufacturers are offering these 
small units — mine happened to 
come from Radio Shack and is 
their HTX-200. While I prefer 
to have a higher power output 
available. I have been greatly 
surprised by this little unit. The 
200 mW available when oper- 
ating using the two AA cells is 
adequate to bring up the local 
repeaters with full quieting. It is 
possible to plug in an external 
power supply, loo; a 9 volt 
power supply will boost the out- 
put to 2 watts. 

The unit has 30 memories that 
store frequency, offset, and 
CTSS tone (as well as a receive 
lone if desired.) It is truly 
shirtpocket in size (2-l/4 M x 3- 

3/8" x 1-1/16") and weighs only 
4.2 ounces (plus batteries), In 
order to keep the size small, it 
lacks a few things such as a 
DTMF keypad, and the display 
mav be a little small for some. 
My solution was to program 
everything in good light while 
wearing my reading glasses so 
I wouldn't have to mess with it 
under field conditions. 

During Floyd I used this as 
my portable unit while the 
Kenwood acted as the third 
desktop unit. This allowed me 
to be reachable (or at least moni- 
tor traffic) while stepping away 
from the operating position for 
a bite to eat a cup of coffee, a 
breath of fresh air, or a restroom 
break. For everyday use, this fits 
comfortably in my briefcase, so 
I always have an HT with me. 
Some radios are just plain fun 
as well as useful, but then this 
is a hobby, after all. 



50 73 Amateur Radio Today • November 1999 



QRP 



Number 51 on your feedback card 



Low Power Operation 



Michael Bryce W88VGE 
SunLtght Energy Systems 
955 Manchester Ave. SW 
North Lawrence OH 44666 
[prosolar® sssnetcom] 



Even though the HW-8 1 had 
just purchased looked very 
good, it was in fact as dead as 
you can get. There is no audio, 
no sidetone, and no static coin- 
ing From the headphones. How- 
ever, if you keyed the trans- 
mitter, il did produce a good 2,5 
watts of RF. EnowiiiiZ that the 
transmitter did in fact fire up 
meant a lot of things. 

Start out by looking at the 
stuff that works first 

Since the HW-8 is a direct 
conversion design, having the 
transmitter meant that the local 
oscillator, the VFO, and hetero- 
dyne oscillators were all working! 
With the aid of my frequency 
counter I could tell that the 
bandswitehing scheme was in 
fact working, as each band was 
on frequency and stable. All the 
hands produced an output ex- 
cept for 20 meters. That band 
was really dead: no transmit! 
Since the HW-8 uses switching 
diodes to select tuned circuits 
and for selecting the proper 
crystal used in the transmitter, a 
good bet would be a had diode 
someplace. But, for now, the 
problem at hand was getting 
something lo come out of the 
headphones. 

Remember a few months ago T 
when I mentioned T had as- 
sembled a Ten-Tee universal au- 
dio amplifier kit? Well, that link 
guy came in hand very nicely 
while troubleshooting the HW- 
8. Since all the RF sections were 
operating, the trouble should be 
someplace in the audio chain. 
There's a chance that the reason 
for a dead receiver may be the 
RF stages of the receiver, bul 
since there is no audio. Til let the 
RF section sit for a while. 



Since a direct conversion re- 
ceiver gets 99 percent of its gain 
at audio frequencies, it's easy to 
pick up some of this audio as it 
moves from the mixer to the 
headphones. In the case of the 
HW-8, there are several stages 
of audio gain along with a sec- 
tion or two of audio filtering. 
The sidetonc is also injected in 
this audio chain. Since we have 
no sidetone, the problem must 
be after the tone is injected into 
the audio amplifier. I used my 
scope to take a peek at the out- 
put of the sidetone generator. 
Sure enough, the HW-8 was in 
fact producing a very nice and 
strong sidetone when the key 
line was closed. 

Most of the audio generated 
by the receiver section in the 
HW-S is very low level. There 
is a small PC board supported 
by a single mounting screw and 
standoff on ihe right side of the 
chassis. This guy is the audio 
power amplifier! Using die Ten- 
Tec audio amplifier I had audio 
going in, but nothing going out. 
Hmmm. Sounds like there is 
something kaput on this PC 
board, After taking some volt- 
age readings, to make sure thai 
VCC and sround were in fact 
available to the board, the likely 
suspect v\as a single transistor. 

Healhkit has always been 
known lo use semiconductors 
having odd pinouts and strange 
part numbers. So, without miss- 
ing a beat, I stuck in a transistor 
1 had in the oT junk pile. Fired 
the HW-8 up and whoa! There 
be static in the headphones! Oh, 
yes: Remember, if you ever pick 
up an HW-8, or HW-7, the au- 
dio output is designed for high 
impedance headphones! Those 
walkthing headphones won't 
work with the HW-8. 



Hearing signals once more on 
40 meters from the HW-tt can 
produce a case of the warm 
fuzzies. However, those soon 
cooled off as 1 tried to gel 20 
meters to come alive. 

A dead 20 meter band 

The 20-meter band did not 
produce any RF into the dummy 
load. Once the audio problem 
was fixed, I expected to hear sig- 
nals on that band, too. Alas, 
nothing but some static. 

Because the HW-8 uses the 
VFO to produce many of the 
signals required, it's easy to 
check out the receiver and trans- 
mitter circuits with only a gen- 
eral coverage receiver. All you 
need to do is tune your general 
coverage receiver to the fre- 
quency display on the HW-8\s 
VFO. You'll be able to hear a 
steady tone produced by the 
HW-8. You can increase the si g 
nal strength of the VFO circuits 
h\ draping a wire connected to 



the general coverage receiver 
close to the VFO can inside the 
HW-8. Just be sure you don't 
allow the wire to touch the VFO 
variable capacitor, Doing so will 
cause the H\Y-N\ VFO to shut 
down. 

With your general coverage 
receiver tuned to the VFO's fre- 
quency, you should be able to 
hear it quite loudly. You may 
have to tune the VFO up or 
down in frequency to hear the 
beat tone. The HW-8 is not 
known as a frequency standard, 
and the VFO will more than 
likely be off frequency. It only 
lakes a few minutes to tell il die 
correct signals are being gener- 
ated by the HW-8. In mv case, 
everything was there except for 
the 20-meterband. Nothing was 
heard in the receiver, so a more 
drastic approach wall be needed 
to track down the problem. 

As 1 mentioned earlier, Heath 
uses switching diodes to select 
the proper tuned circuits and 
crystals used by the HW-8, The 



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73 Amateur Radio Today * November 1999 51 



Number 52 on your Feedback c&rd 



The Digithl Port 



Jack Heller KB7NO 

P.O. Box 1792 

Carson City NV 89702*1792 

[jheller@sierra.net] 



You may wonder, as I did, 
about the real acceptance of 
PSK3 1 . Just a little over a week 
ago (during September), a 24- 
hour contest was staged tor the 
new mode. Several interesting 
things became apparent. 

The first point of interest was 
obvious to me when I only ac- 
cidentally ran across the listing 
of the contest in QST during the 
week previous to the contest. 
Surely there were other notices 
because the activity was there in 
lull force, but I only saw the one. 

I admit I am not a contester 
— and, I want to be perfectly 
clear, this is only because it is a 
skill I have never developed. 



However, I do admire those who 
participate and do well. For me, 
it is a bit intense — I don' l do weU 
with handheld names either. 

But I did listen and make a 
few contacts (seven of them). By 
Saturday morning. I heard sta- 
tions that were reporting in ex- 
cess of 300 contacts. I was 
impressed. There were stations 
from Europe, Asia, and South 
America, and I worked a few of 
them with my little peanut 
whistle signal. 

I noticed some big gun sig- 
nals. It seems that the norm lor 
those running power is about 
200 to 300 watts. Some may be a 
bit "louder " However, the saving 



factor with PSK31 is that it is 
an excellent weak signal mode. 
All that is necessary is for the 
receiving station to tune care- 
fully. Many signals that do not 
wiggle the S-meterare 90 percent 
readable or belter. 

I managed a solid contact 
with JG1GGU, and my signal 
was heard by OA4CVT, but the 
info exchange wasn't good on 
the latter and he moved on. I was 
just glad to be heard. The most 
interesting station I heard was 
BV2B. He never heard me, but 
it was a thrill to hear the signal 
from China and know that inter- 
est in the mode is alive and well 
there also. 

Another new toy 

I received an E-mail from Bill 
N5ALO, who pointed me to- 
ward the PSKGNR software that 
works with the original PSK31 
software for Windows™. The 
package is conveniently set up 
to be downloaded to two flop- 
pies for easy transport. The Web 



site is [http://www.at-williams. 
com/wd5gnr/pskgnr.htm]. 

1 downloaded it and printed 
the manual, and it is a delight in 
several wavs. Installation is 
easy. It takes care of itself in that 
you put it in a separate directory, 
click "setup/* and it jumps 
through all the necessary hoops. 
When it is finished, you just 
keep following directions to run 
the program and install your 
eallsign. 

The part that sounds scary to 
me is thai this is a front-end tor 
the PSK3L so boih Windows 
programs are meant to run con- 
currently. When you boot the 
PSKGNR. it hunts for the 
PSK3 1 program and, if it is not 
already running, starts it as well. 
Once you get both screens 
showing on your monitor, you 
make your own effort to "tidy 
up" the displays because one is 
bound to overlap the other. 

A little click and drag, and 
you are all set. The next time I 
started the program, both were 
in their new positions on the 



Heath company must have 
bought 1N914 diodes by the 
traincarload. They* re used in 
most Heathkits Fve seen. 

They're easy to cheek. In the 
HW-8, when you press one of 
the front panel push-buttons to 
select a band. 1 2 volts is routed 
to the proper switching diode. 
All you have to do is locate the 
diode, and check to see if plus- 
12 volts is applied to one end 
when the proper button is 
pushed in. If the diode is good, 
you'll see it pass the voltage, If 
you see the switching voltage 
going in, but nothing coming 
out, the diode is open. Likewise, 
if there is voltage on both ends, 
the diode is shorted. Also, the 
band selector switches have a 
zillion wires coming and going. 
A broken one may prevent the 
required switching voltage from 
reaching the proper diode. 

Fve discussed how the 
switching diodes work in each 
circuit in past columns. There's 
no need to dig into their opera- 
tion again. You only need to do 



some simple voltage checks to 
find a kaput switching diode. 
Also, remember there are sev* 
eral diodes scattered around the 
HW-8 thai must switch various 
parls in and out of the tuned cir- 
cuits, Check all the diodes used 
by a given band. 

Well, after checking all the 
diodes and for broken wires on 
the bandswitch. it looks like for 
all the world like I have a bad 
crystal in the mixer oscillator 
The oscillator works on all the 
other bands, so all of its pieces 
parts are functional. It's only on 
the 20-meter band that things 
are dead. A scope and frequency 
counter show nary a peep out of 
the oscillator when 20 meters is 
selected. The only variable left 
is the crystal. 

Crystals usually just don't up 
and quit, I resoldered the con- 
nections on the PC board, but, 
alas, 20 meters is still kaput. 
Guess I am going to have to or- 
der a crystal from Jan Crystals 
and see about getting this guy 
all fixed up. 



HW-8s are getting old 

1 can remember putting my 
HW-8 together way back in 
1978. Like the HW-8 S I am a lot 
older and things are starting to 
break down. Since it's pushing 
over twenty years old, some care 
must be used when working on 
the rig. The PC board is the old 
paper-based stuff. Excess heal 
can easi h damage the board and 
the copper pads. Use only 
enough heat to melt the solder. 
Solder wick works quite nicely 
on the board, A £ood vacuum 
desoldering tool is a nice item 
to have, too. 

There are not too many half- 
watt resistors left in my junk 
box. You can use the now -sian- 
dard quarter watt guys in most 
of the circuits used in the H W- 
8, Radio Shack stills carried 
some half-watt resistors the last 
time I looked. 

The capacitors are reaching 
the end of their lifespan. Keep a 
sharp eye oul for leaky electro- 
lytic capacitors. The capacitors 



used in the tuned circuit may 
have changed values enough to 
cause these circuits to operate 
incorrectly, 

Be awfully careful with the 
mechanical pieces parts. There's 
no source for such parts as the 
VFO variable capacitor, the 
meter, and the bandswitch. If 
these are kaput, then youTl have 
to go dig up another HW-8 to 
steal parte off of. 

They're getting old. and 
harder and harder to find in good 
shape on the used market. The 
other night I was trolling the 
Internet. On eBay, an unas- 
sembled Heathkil HW-9 was 
going for over $600! I shudder 
to think about what an unas- 
sembled HW-8 would go for. 

The Heathkil HW-8 is a clas- 
sic QRP transeei v er. You" re just 
not a QRP operator unless 
you've put an HW-8 on the air 
If you find one at a hamfest or 
via the Internet, pick k up. Even 
if it does not work, it's still a 
classic! 



52 73 Amateur Radio Today • November 1999 



monj lor just as I had left them. 
Somewhere in the Options box, 
I think I saw a choice to click 
on to cause that to happen. It 
was either clicked by default or 
I clicked it (or maybe it just 
works). Small item. 

One really nice feature of the 
PSKGNR is that U allows type 
ahead. Very handy for those of 
us who don't like to look like 
we are stumbling through the 
first line or so when it is our turn 
to transmit. And, if you have a 
head start on the typing you can 
stay ahead for a minute or so ... 
right up to the time you remem- 
ber where the brag file is you 
want to send. 

Plus, it already has some mac- 
ros set up* so you can enter the 
call of the station worked and 
his name and the macros will 
pick these up when you press the 
appropriate function key. For 
instance, the Fl key is pro- 
grammed for W1XYZ de 
KB7NO as soon as 1 press R 1 2 
and enter the W1XYZ in the 
pop- up box. 

There is more, There is a se- 
rial number feature with auto- 
matic advance. This thing is 
going to trap me into doing the 
unthinkable and get serious 
about contesting. It just plain 
makes it easy. 

As you can imagine, you will 
need to keep track of commands 
for both screens. That has been 
simplified. What you want to 
remember is to keep the 
PSKGNR screen active and 
avoid the temptation to click on 
the upper PSK31 screen, which 
will activate it That action is not 
a disaster If you wish, you may 
use the PSK31 program as 
though the other program isn't 
running, It will work. 

What the author did is about 
as intuitive as it gets, but I am 
still sneaking peeks at a cheat- 
sheet by the keyboard. The func- 
tion keys you used to use for 
PSK3 1 still exist, if you remem- 
ber those functions have a "Con- 
trol" key added to them, That is, 
if you want to toggle the squelch 
in the PSK31, you use Control 
F2 and don't succumb to click- 
ing the button. If you click, you 



have to exercise the gray matter 
and get back to the lower screen. 
It took me awhile, but I think I 
had an on-the-air 20 minute chat 
a little while ago with next to 
no confusion. 

The plain vanilla function 
keys (just press them by them- 
selves) control the new func- 
tions on the lower screen. I 
guess some folks would apply 
the logic that if we want to con- 
trol the upper screen, we must 
use the Control key. Sounds 
good, works for most. You will 
need to keep the cheat sheet 
handy until you have used the 
new functions for a spell. 

There are such functions as 
the ID exchange ([worked stn 
call] de [your call]), your call by 
itself, the time and date stamp, 
and the other operator's name. 
Plus, there are more than a half 
dozen handy mini-macros like 
that to keep you up on whom 
you are talking to and reduce the 
"repetitive action*' syndrome. I 
didn't see any guarantees, but it 
should diminish the possibility 
of the active ham contracting 
carpal tunnel syndrome. 

I nearly didn't mention an- 
other set of programmable keys. 
You can use the Shift key with 
the function keys and build your 
own set of handy timesavers. 
Also, you can set up to retrieve 
any larger file and send it. You 
will Figure what works best for 
you. It would seem you could 
run the first two or three ex- 
changes with a contact before 
you would need to resort to ac- 
tual typing. I don't think I could 
stand to be that lazy, but the 
program offers the capability. 

The screen shot is my layout 
for the two programs on the 
same monitor. You may wish to 
make the upper PSK3 1 screen a 
little larger in proportion, since 
both the transmitted and re- 
ceived text is on the same screen 
while only outgoing text is on 
the lower screen. 

I had a little problem getting 
that screen shot to cooperate, so 
there was a bit of touch-up per- 
formed, I had to do it in black 
and white and it lost quite a bit 
of definition. I just wanted you 



w _ 



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Hlidlc tenn 



Fbc Frr q Nz Tx Frcq Hz 



1000 


A. 

* 



TkOtt 



CWID 



CO 



Twic 



BBS 



S* £* frt* ESK31 I«k tJib 



KC7 JN J da KB7MQ KC7 JN J da KB 7NQ AhngyfAl — Vtiuwa^aiiiBd an kaenairiq i1 fiirrttile. 1 11^ uaaJtha'mong Qjnrfcina&iifi *■! 
and QQl a lifflo rw tfyrnJarfl hi hi WefL ttiis made is -Gtmply amazing . 1 here ore cume loud siynals w* tar trim lhis taquewcy and 
tiEy were cutting you up ..j^fter abturt a minute I q at the peas band on the 73& screwed in jitslnghtondrtwas near perfect oapy 
from 0*W ut.. 

Y'es, the radio is g*B4l. I hafca bean 4is ing it for year* and that nvaan e o&u k ino it vtfth tna much power sometimes on RTTY and it 
fuel kBepS Cm Irucking. . Your vertical is doing agraai|GD I Stink ground mount is the bed with Uiu&G. Ifrftd a verfccal JflMM MJQ 
and Hied nana ron( lop Walworth Sne effort They need the! around plane.. 

Well thit tnqwH and is »1ill qgnry&ing me but than it Sokes a wriiie 1a leant new tricks far a r oJfl rings Type ahaod is nioe and I have 
lopgotten to do * wtule yon are ae* ii p j t^ gootf thimg i& ihe macros ovwaJtite mud JoggMuj capobiWea... Vetto be explored... 

•I 



Photo A, Screen shot. This is a view of both programs (PSK3J and 
PSKGNR) up and running, each occupying about half the screen. 
The bottom screen is used for composing your message. What you 
type goes here as well as any automatically inserted text. When you 
tell it to send, the text goes to the box just above it, labeled middle 
screen. In the end, the upper screen not only gets the received text but 
also the transmitted text. The middle screen is the composing screen 
in the PSK3I program if you are using it by itself. You can type ahead 
in the large bottom screen and the text remains there until you tell it to 
send The control keys are intuitive, as they mimic the original PSK3J 
keys, but you have a new set of rules to learn so you can control the 
functions of both screens with only the lower screen activated. Very 
slick once you get the hang of it. In the white area at the bottom there 
are more useful buttons. These didn f t display in the screen shot 



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73 Amateur Radio Today • November 1999 53 




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to gel an idea of what ii looked 
like. The monitor docs take on 
the full flavor and colors of any 
Windows program, 

I have hoih of those programs 
running in the IBM laptop and 
they seem quite siahle. That re- 
mark is because some pieces of 



souiideard-based communica- 
tions software act very strangely 
in the laptop. It is a good idea, 
depending on ihe sound swem 
of your laptop, to approach with 
a modest layer of apprehension. 
I know they do not all work as 
well as this one. I have not run 



across an authority on what is 
compatible and what is not. You 
just get to wing it 

And. 1 realized today, the laptop 
has only 256 colors. That was part 
of the problem with the screen 
shot. Mv wife will never under- 
stand why I need so many new 
toys. 

PSK31 can lead to 
new horizons 

Awhile back. I received a call 
on PSK from an enthusiastic 
ham who had been on the air for 
25 years, was reading my mail, 
and gave a shout because I was 
the first Ne\ada station he ever 
worked. So PSK was good for 
him, but wail ,,, Joe KX4JR 
broushl me some new wisdom 
thai simply blew my mind. 

There are two parts. The first 
was he pointed me to a Web site 
[http://members.xoom.com/ 
ZLIBPU/Contentsditmlj. I 
plugged the address into my 
Netscape v.4.0 and it acted un- 
usual. Instead of displaying 
a Web page, a download w as 



Current Web Addresses 

— 


Source for: 


Web address (URL) 


HF serial modem plans + software 


http://www.accessone.com/-tmayhan/ 


SV2AGW free Win95 programs 


http://www.forthnet.gr/sv2agw/ 


BayCom — German site 


http://www.baycom.de/ 


Pasokon SSTV programs & hardware 


http://www.ultranetxom/~sstv/lite.html 


PSK31 — Free — orig, PSK31 — also Logger 


http://ainteLbi.ehu.es/psk31 .html 


PSKGNR — New — Front end for PSK31 www.al-williams.com/wd5gnr/pskgnrhtm 


Baycom 1,5 and Manual zip in English 


http^/www,cs.wvu.edu/-acm/gopher/Software 
/baycom/ 


Source for BayPac BP-2M 


http://www,tigertronics .com/ 


TNC to radio wiring help 


http://freeweb.pdq.net/medcalf/ztx/ 


ChromaPIX & ChromaSound DSP software 


http://www.siliconpixels.com/ 


Timewave DSP & AEA products 


http://www,timewavexom 


International Visual Communication Association — 
a non-profit organization dedicated to SSTV 


http;//www, mindspring.com/-sstv/ 


XPWare — TNC software with sample download 


http://www.goodnet.com/-gjohnson/ 


Auto tuner and other kits 


http://wwwJdgeJectronics.corn 


TAPR — lots of info 


www.tapr.org 


Creative Services Software 


wwwcssincorp.com 



Table L The Infamous Chun — "Almost everything „. " 
54 73 Amateur Radio Today * November 1999 



initiated. I fiddled with that for 
a while to be sure t wasn't do- 
ing something wrong and also 
that the download was what 
was intended. 

Then I put the project aside, 
or at least to the back of my 
mind, and several weeks later 
tried the URL again with the 
same setup — and got the same 
result. This time I had an alter- 
nate plan. I had the laptop set 
up on the desk and plugged it 
into the phone line and used the 
older v.3.0 Netscape. The Web 
site acted perfectly normal. That 
was worth tucking away in 
memory. 

However, and this is BIG, that 
wasn't the only teaming expe- 
rience Joe was responsible for 
The Web site, and you must go 
there to pruve I am not pulling 
your leg, has description with 
pictures, history, and instruc- 
tions of how to get started in a 
totally different digital com- 
munication process called 
Hellschreiber. 

The system was invented 
back in the ' 20s. \\ as used over 
phone Lines, and works some- 
what like a facsimile, I don't 
recall if the historic descrip- 
tion included use over radio in 
olden times. The review is a bit 
long, interesting enough, so I 
didn't lake the time to read it 
word for word. 

It probably was never really 
practical for hams to experi- 
ment with until this day of the 
computer. That is, it was likely 
very heavy on the hardware 
side as in the earlier days of 
RTTY. The site directs you to 
downloads (free! of software 
that will get you into business, 
They even have listings of net 
schedules with limes and fre- 
quencies. The whole idea 
looks like it would be a lot of 
fun to sec it work, considering 
the hisiory r of the project. 

So. after absorbing as much 
of this as I could at one sitting, 
I sent off to Joe the QSL I had 
been holding hostage and told 
him what a great service he did 
for amateur radio by letting me 
in on this. Now thai I am pass- 
ing it on to you, you too will 



Number 55 on your Feedback card 



Calendar 



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your Calendar item two months in advance of the issue you 
want it to appear in. For example, if you want it to appear in 
the February issue, we should receive it by December 31. Pro- 
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your Calendar item. 



NOV 13 

MONTGOMERY, AL The Mont- 
gomery ARC will host the 1999 
Alabama ARRL Convention at the 
22nd annual Montgomery Mani- 
fest and Computer Show in 
Garrett Coliseum at the South 
Alabama State Fair Grounds, 
located on Federal Drive in the 
North Eastern section of Mont- 
gomery. Admission $5 t free 
parking, all indoors, including the 
ftea market. Flea market setup 3 
pm-B p,m, Nov. 1 2th, and 6 a.m - 
8 a.m. Nov. 13th. Doors open to 
the public 9 a.m,-3 pm CST VE 
exams on-site beginning at 6 a.m. 
Bring original and a copy of your 
current license, picture ID and $4. 
Tallin on 146.24/.84 t W4AP + 
Ragchew 146.32/92 (with phone 
patch, *up/#down} t 147,78/ + 18 T 
449,50/444.50. Flea market 
reservations required to ensure 
table. Tailgaters welcome, $5 per 
vehicle space. For more info write 
to Hamfest Committee, c/o 2141 
Edinburgh Dr., Montgomery AL 
36116-1313; or phone Phil at 
(334) 272-7980 after 5 p.m. CST. 
E-mail [wb4ozn@woridnetatt.net}. 
Visit the Web site for late-breaking 
news and events, [http.f/jschool. 
troysLedu/~-w4ap/]. 

NOV 13-14 

FT. WAYNE, IN The 27th Fort 
Wayne Hamfest & Computer Expo 
will be held Nov, 13th and 14th at 
the Allen County War Memorial 
Coliseum Exposition Center. 



Sponsored by the Allen County 
Amateur Radio Technical Society. 
Hours; Saturday 9 a.m.-4 p.m. 
EST; Sunday 9 a.m.-3 p.m. EST. 
No advanced ticket sales. Ad- 
mission S5 at the door only, 11 
years old and under free with an 
adult. Coliseum parking, S2 per 
vehicle. Talk-in on 146>88(-), New 
and used ham dealers. Computers 
and software. Forums and 
meetings. Flea market tables, 8- 
ft. t S20 each. Premium tables. 8- 
ft, S40 each. 527.50 for electricity 
(110V 20A). For info or table 
orders, send an SASE to 
ACARTS/Fort Wayne Hamfest, 
RO. Box 10342, Fort Wayne IN 
46851. For more table info, call 
(21 9) 483-8163. For general info, 
call (219) 484-1314, Visit the Web 
site at [http-J/www.acarts.coml 

NOV 19-20 

OCEAN SPRINGS, MS The West 
Jackson County ARC will hold its 
annual Hamfest/Swaplest at the 
St. Martin Community Center 
north of Ocean Springs. The 
hamfest will be open to the 
general public from 5 p.m.-9 p.m. 
on the 1 9th , and 8 a.m -2 p.m. on 
the 20th. Admission will be $2 per 
adult or $4 for an entire family. 
Take Exit 50 South from 1-10 at 
Ocean Springs. Follow Hwy. 609 
to the second light. Turn right on 
Lemoyne Blvd.. and the 
Community Center is 1 mile on the 
right side. Free parking. RVs may 
park overnight if they are 
completely self contained. There 



be indebted to Joe. He doesn't 
have a clue, I am sure T what 
honors you faithful readers 
will shower on him once you 
are aware of the golden "find." 
I didn't add the URL to the 
chart. If you think that is a se- 
rious deletion, let me know. 



About ten E-mails will set me 
straight. 

If you have questions or com- 
ments about this column, E-mail 

me [jheller@sieiTa.net], J will 
gladly share what I know or find 
a resource for you. For now, 73, 
Jack KB7NCX 



are several motels in the vicinity 
of Exit 50. 8-ft. tables are S5. 
Advanced deposits are required 
for sales table reservations. Talk- 
in on 145.11(0 MHz, N50S. VE 
exams will be held at 11 a.m. 
Saturday. Bring photo ID, the 
original license, and a photocopy 
of that license. The testing fee is 
$6.45. Contact Phil Hunsberger 
W9NZ, 1207 Lancelot Lane, 
Ocean Springs, MS 39564, tel. 
(228) 872-1499; or call Stan 
Hecker N5SP at (228) 875-0222, 

NOV 20 

GOLDEN, CO The 1999 RMRL 
Hamfest will be hosted by the 
Rocky Mountain Radio League. 
inc.H November 20th ? 8 a.m -2 
p,m. s at Jefferson County Fair- 
grounds, 15200 W. 6th Ave,, 
Golden CO (Indiana Exit from 6th 
Ave), Talk-in on 144,62/145.22 
MHz. Admittance S4 per person; 
tables $10 in advance or at the 
door, VE exams. ARRL forum. 
Contact Ron Rose N0MOJ, (303) 
985-8692; E-mail [n0mqj@arrf.netl 



NEWTONVILLE, HA The Wal- 
tham ARA/1200 RC Auction and 
Ham Social wifl be held Saturday, 
Nov. 20th on the 2nd floor of the 
Newton Masonic Hall, 460 
Newton vilie Ave. h Newtonville MA 
(the corner of Walnut St. and 
Newtonville Ave., across from the 
Star Market). Metered parking on 
the streets. Masonic Hall lot 
reserved for other occupants of 
the building. Stay away from the 
Star Market lot, or they 1 !! tow your 
vehicle. There is free parking in the 
municipal lot a block away Ad- 
mission $2. Talk-in on 146,64{-) 
Waltham rptr Seller check-in 
starts at 9:30 a.m. For directions 
and further info, visit the WWW 
site at [http://ourworld.compu* 
serve, com/homepages/emayer/ 
auction.htm], or contact Eliot 
Mayer W1MJ t (617) 484-1089; E- 
mail [w 1 mj @amsat org}. 

NOV 27 

EVAN5VILLE, IN The 7th Annual 
E.A.R.S, and Ham Station 

Evansville Winter Hamfest will be 
held Sat>, Nov, 27th, 8 a.m.-2 p.m. 



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CIRCLE 13 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



73 Amateur Radio Today • November 1999 55 



CST at the Vanderburgh Co, 4-H 
Center Fairgrounds Auditorium. 
Free parking. Free lailgating. 
Commercial dealers. Indoor flea 
market. Setup begins at 6 a.m. 
Central Time. Talk-in on EARS 
Wide Area Rptr. Network, 
145.1 50(-) Evansville/146.925(-) 
and 443,925(+) Vincennes, Af 
ternate: EARS Rptr. 145.110(-). 
Please use 107.2 CTCSS on all 
frequencies listed. 8 ft. tables S3 
each. Wall spaces 510. Admission 
S5, New and used equipment will 
be featured. Visit with repre* 
sentatives of (com at the Icom 
Forum at 11 a.m. For more info or 
table reservations, contact Neil 
WB9VPG at (812) 479-5741; or 
write to EARS, 1506 S. Parker Or, t 
Evansville IN 47714. E-mail to 
[EARSHAM@aoicom]. The ham* 
fest Web site is at [http:// 
members,aol.com/earsham/], 

SPECIAL EVENTS. ETC. 

NOV 11 

ALBUQUERQUE, NM Station 
N5VA will operate from the 



Veterans Medical Center on 
Veteran's Day, Nov. 11th. 
Operation will be 16:00 UTC- 
04:00 UTC on 14.287. 21,325. 
18.130 and 7,245 MHz, or as 
close to those frequencies as 
possible. For a 9" x 1 1" certificate, 
please send a large SASE to VA 
Medical Center 1501 San Pedro 
Dr. SE 117D, Albuquerque NM 
B710B USA. 

NOV 13-14 

CEDAR RAPIDS, IA The Cedar 
Valley ARC will operate Special 
Event Station WGGQ 13002- 
23002, to commemorate 50 years 
of CVARC, Operation will be from 
the club station at Kirkwood 
Community College (Jones Hall), 
Frequencies will be located ± 
QRM around 7.035 r 7.135, 7.235, 
14.035. 14.235, 21.035. 21.135, 
21.235, 28.135 and 28.335, at the 
operator s discretion. Certificates 
will be issued for contacts made 
with WOGQ. Send a self-ad- 
dressed-stamped 9x12 envelope 
for an unfolded certificate; or QSL 
for a special 50th Anniversary 



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QSL card. For more info contact 
Jim Covington at [aaOxj@ia.netl 

NOV 20-22 

VALE ISLAND, NORTHWEST 
TERRITORIES In celebration of 
the 5th Anniversary of the US 
Islands (USI) awards program, 
VE8JR will be active exclusively 
around 28.495 from Vale Island. 
Operation will take place during 
the ARRL November Sweep- 
stakes Contest, Nov, 20th~22neL 
17m activity will also take place 
from Northwest Territories and 
Alaska after the contest. QSL Mgr, 
KL7JR (CBA). Web site at [http:// 
www.eng.mu.edu/"UStl 

DEC 7 

MESA. AZ The East Valley 
Amateur Radio Group, WA7USA. 
will commemorate Ihe Battleship 
US$ Arizona 1500Z-2400Z on 
the frequencies 14.240. 21,340, 
and 28.340 MHz, Stations 
contacted may request a 
certificate by sending a QSL card 
and a 9 x 12 SASE to EVARG. 
3264 E, Carol Ave,, Mesa AZ 
| 85204-3245 USA, 

DEC 10-11 

BETHLEHEM, IN The Clark 
County ARC will operate W9WWI. 
1 500Z Dec. 1 0!h-2200Z Dec. 1 1 th 
in celebration of the Christmas 
season. Operation will be on 
General 75 s 40, and 20 meters. 
QSL with an SASE for a certificate 
to CCARC. 1805 E. 8th St.. 
Jeffersonviile IN 47130 USA. 

DEC 31 -J AN 2 

AUSTIN, TX The 3M ARC 

(W3MRC) of Austin TX will 
operate using the special caUsign 
W2T, 1100 UTC Dec. 31st-2400 
UTC Jan, 2nd. SSB operation will 
be on 7.230, 14.340, 21,410 and 
28-350 MHz. For a certificate, 
send a large SASE with 2 stamps 
{see Web site for details). Send 
QSL to 3M ARC— W3MRC. A 147- 
5S*03 t 6801 Riverplace Blvd.. 
Austin TX 78726-9000. See [www. 
qsl.net/w3mrc] for more Info. 



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NEUER SRV DIE 

continued from page 6 

had mv first Arab horse. I'd 
done that 

How do vou decide what 
business field to enter? Well, 
I said to find something that 
looks like it would be fun. 
Serendipity will step in to 
open opportunities for you, if 
you let it. It always has for 
me. For instance, I got to be 
good friends with Ken Gra>- 
son W2HDM my surplus con- 
version editor Ken had an 
MGB sports car and was hav- 
ing fun going on car rallies. 
So I looked over the sports 
cars and decided on a Porsche 
Speedster. After a couple of 
drives in my new Porsche, 
Ken sold his MGB and 
bought a Porsche, too. 

I sol all involved with ral- 
lying. Wow, was that fun! The 
idea is to follow a set of not 
loo clear instructions and drive 
at exactly the given speed over 
a given route. Every so often 
there is a checkpoint (often 
hidden), timing you as you go 
by. You lose one point for 
every hundredth of a minute 
you're early or late. This 
means thai you have to be 
arnied with an exact odometer, 
a dependable stop watch, and 
a calculator, 

Hundredths-of-a-mile 
odometers were available, but 
most of the stopwatches were 
not dependable enough lor 
more than an hour or so. We 
needed better watches that 
would be accurate to a half 
second a day. That meant 
more jewels in the movement 
and compensation for tem- 
perature changes. 

Most rallies were only four 
or five hours long, but some 
were overnight or even 1000- 
mile events, so a good watch 
was important, I found thai 
one of the best was made bv 
Hanhardt in Schwenningen. 
Germany. So I visited the fac- 
tory' and arranged to have 
them make some special 17- 
jewel rally watches that I im- 
ported and sold via small ads 
in the car magazines. 

A cute little hand-held cal- 
culator was being made by 
Curta in Liechtenstein chat 
was ideally suited for rally 
use. I'd been using a big 



56 73 Amateur Radio Today * November 1999 



Monroe desk calculator, 
mounted on a stand between 
the navigator's legs and pow- 
ered by an AC inverter in the 
back seat, so something the 
size of a small pepper grinder 
was a great improvement 
Yes t I went to Liechtenstein 
and talked with the prince, 
who owned the factory- The 
calculators were mainly used 
for currency conversions by 
European banks and change 
offices. The factory was 
mostly automated, but with 
women doing the assembly 
and testing the units, I set up 
an agreement to import the 
Curias and added them to my 
rally catalog. I sold hundreds 
of them, making a nice profit 
on the deal. 

The one other thing that 
rallyists needed was a better 
set of time-speed-distance 
tables. The ones on the mar- 
ket filled a notebook and 
were difficult to use. So I fig- 
ured out a much belter system 
that required just one page of 
tables. Soon my customers 
were winning all the rallies. 

Since my products were 
aimed at a very narrow inter- 
est group, it was easy to reach 
them through small ads in the 
sports car magazines. 

What Fm trying to get 
across is that there arc oppor- 
tunities everywhere if you 
just keep your eyes and ears 
open. Rally equipment wasn't 
a huge business, but it was a 
great sideline while I was 
mainly publishing 73 maga- 
zine. And it sure was u lot of 
fun. 

Working for other people 
sucks, so start thinking of a 
business that would be fun 
and that you could start small 
and grow. When you're your 
own boss, you 11 have the free- 
dom to travel and do things — 
as I have. 

Over 40, Over the Hill 

Hmm, are you still working 
for someone else? If you're 
over 40, you could be in 
trouble. Companies are wak- 
ing up to the fact that younger 
workers work harder and 
longer, are more adaptable, 
are eager to learn, and cost a 
lot less than older workers. 
The days of working for a 



company until retirement at 

55 are blowing away. The day 
of getting pay increases on a 
regular basis are blowing away. 
Heck, I'm old enough to re- 
member when the retirement 
age was 65 ! 

Now t if you're over 55, you 
are unemployable. If you are 
over 40, and looking for work, 
you're going to find that there's 
not much available, and you'll 
probably have to take a 40% 
or more pay cut. 

Yes, this is unfair. But Pve 
had an awful lot of employ- 
ees over the years, so I can 
sympathize with companies 
looking for young workers. I 
tried hiring older people, bet I 
found them, no matter their 
years of experience, to be less 
adaptable to our work and less 
productive, so I found myself 
looking for eager young people 
1 could train. Indeed, my great- 
est employment disasters were 
when I brought in high-priced, 
experienced managers. 

Of course, if you* re self- 
employed, you've got a job 
for as long as you like, and 
never mind 40, 55, or even 
65, for that matter. 

Recent studies have shown 
that there is little difference 
in job performance between 
people who have five or 20 
years of experience, which 
brings into question the old 
idea of annual raises that 
gradually price older employ- 
ees out of their jobs. 

So, if you are a working 
stiff, how long is it going to 
lake for the tight to go on that 
security lies in running your 
own business, not working 
for someone else? Blue collar 
workers are seeing their jobs 
move offshore. Managers are 
being replaced by informa- 
tion systems and younger, 
less expensive people. And 
it's only going to get worse! 

Megamergers mean a mega- 
loss of jobs, and it isn't the 
younger people who are get- 
ting axed. Working for a large 
corporation is increasingly 
chancy when it comes to re- 
tirement benefits. Gratitude, 
the least felt of all human 
emotions, is particularly in 
short supply when it comes to 
business. 

How many of you remember 
retirement parties? 



Stupidity 

Einstein said: "The differ- 
ence between genius and stu- 
pidity is that genius has its 
limits," 

Neo Colleges 

What should colleges be 
teaching instead of feel -good 
fluff courses? Please let me 
know if you've heard of any 
college that's teaching about 
shipping products. Like the 
best packaging to use and 
how to shop for it. The pros 
and cons of shipping by rail- 
road, truck, ship, airplane, 
UPS, USPS, and so on. If 
you're importing a product 
from, say, Taiwan, how would 
be the best way to have it 
shipped? Do you use bulk 
shipments on a pallet or in 
containers? How important is 
time for you? How about the 
survival of delicate products? 
Are the temperatures during 
shipment a concern? 

Just understanding the many 



post office rates is a challenge. 
When time is critical, which 
of the fc4 overnight" services are 
best? 

Well, you gel the idea. No 
matter how big or small a 
company, someone should 
have an understanding of 
shipping and mailing alterna- 
tives, If you leave it up to a 
clerk you're going to pay 
heavily for their ignorance. 
And keep right on paying. 

Auto Whoopee 

You've never heard of an auto 
whoopee? Good grief! These 
were wooden structures built 
like a roller coaster ride that 
you could drive on with your 
car (250). There was one 
down near Central Airport in 
Camden (Philadelphia's air- 
port) when I was a kid. In the 
off hours, when it was closed, 
we kids used to ride our bi- 
cycles on it. Bicycle whoopee. 

During the summer, when I 
was eight, 1 used to get some 
of my friends to come down 



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73 Amateur Radio Today • November 1999 57 



to the airport with me on their 
bicycles and my dad, who was 
either checking out planes for 
certification or logging hours, 
would lake us up for rides. 
And thai usually included liv- 
ing upside down, which was 
an experience in an open cock- 
pit plane that none of T em will 
ever forget. My dad designed. 
built, and managed the air- 
port, so I was around planes a 
lot — and he often had pilot 
friends over for dinner 

This was around 1930, 
when even our local movie 
theater in Pennsauken had 
several acts of vaudeville, 
complete with a live orches- 
tra, every Saturday. That's 
when miniature golf got started 
and snou was everywhere. 
That's when my mother 
taught me to swim in the pool 
across the street from the air- 
port. 1 immediately found I 
preferred swimming under- 
water and seeing how lone I 
could hold my breath, I'm 
still ai iL hut now I use scuba 
equipment so I can stay down 
longer and go much deeper* 

Ask any old-timer about 
auto whoopees. Ask 'em about 
how there used to be vacant 
lots all around their neighbor- 
hood where they used to play. 

Dribbler 

One of our 73 readers, Bob 
Nickerson, has racked up 
several world records- Like 
fur dribbling four basketballs 
simultaneously (at the same 
time, all at once) for as long 
as five minutes and juggling 
three balls while shoot iniz 20 
consecutive baskets in one 
minute, according to the 
Guinness Spons Record 
Book, Bob also sent a couple 
pictures of him juggling three 
hatchets while balancing an 
axe on lop of his head. Oops! 

With so lew people taking 
the time to build skills or in 
some way stand out from the 
crowd, I really enjoy hearing 
about people who have. 

While You Were Sleeping 

Your Congress has been 
busy while you've been di- 
verted with Monica and other 
things of far greater interest 
— busy passing out money 
(your money, by the way — 

58 73 Amateur Radio Today ■ November 1999 



money you presumably loaf 
hard for between smoking 
breaks) or giving tax breaks 
(which are the same thing) to 
subsidize things ranging from 
shipbuilding, coal research, 
the sale of US weapons over- 
seas, peanut farming, helping 
to buy crop insurance for to- 
bacco igee, thanks a mil- 
lion!), building roads into na- 
tional forests for the Umber 
industrv, selling minerals on 
public lands at bargain base- 
ment prices, providing cut 
rate electricity for businesses 
like casinos, helping shippers 
use inland waterways, bailing 
out banks with loans gone 
bad in foreign countries, and 
endless more corporate wel- 
fare. All to the tune of over a 
third of a billion a dav! No 
wonder so many people have 
to work two jobs to make 
ends meet. 

I love reading about the 
government helping to pay for 
Levi Strauss to open a plant in 
Turkey and then paying unem- 
ployment to the 6.400 workers 
in lhi> country whose jobs had 
been eliminated. 

Then there are the export 
suhsidies, and this is a beaut. 
By opening a paper-shuffling 
office in the Virgin Islands or 
some other Caribbean vacation 
spot, corporations are able to 
avoid export taxes to the tune 
of a couple billion dollars a 
year. Unfortunately, the boards 
of directors of these corpora- 
tions are forced to attend a 
yearly meeting at the export 
site. 

When I w r as on the board of 
a billion dollar corporation 
we had directors' meetings in 
places like Beijing and Sydney, 
all expenses paid. In Beijing, 
we staved at the Emperor's 
Guest House complex and 
enjo\ed three royal meals a 
day. I sure do want to thank 
you for helping to pick up the 
tab and making my life more 
exciting. 

Then there's the Export- 
Import Bank, set up in 1934 
as a measure to help gel us 
out of the Depression. Recent 
reports of this outfit show 
them spending $51 billion of 
your money a year to subsidize 
American exports, mostly for 
about ten companies. Boeing 
alone had subsidized sales of 



$1 1 billion to some 30 coun- 
tries. The rationale was that 
this would create more Ameri- 
can jobs, but we have fewer 
people working in manufactur- 
ing today than ten years ago. 
And more in government 
than in manufacturing. 

Well, that s just a sampler. 
There are some well-re- 
searched books reviewed in 
my $5 Secret Guide to Wis- 
dom that cite an endless array 
of other government fiascoes 
and crooked schemes, all of 
which are paid for by you. 

John Campbell 

The Star Wars furor (and 
major disappointment) pro- 
duced a very perceptive ar- 
ticle by Oliver Morton in The 
New Yorker (5/17/99) on the 
genesis of Lucas' Galactic 
Empire series. Well, it was all 
about people I knew person- 
ally. Some were good friends. 

Morton explained how John 
W. Campbell Jr. (W2ZGU) 
brought science fiction into 
maturity in the late 1930s and 
1940s. I got to know John in 
the 1950s and we were good 
friends. A lunch with John 
was an exciting experience, 
with the conversation going 
from Hieronymus machines 
to basement nuclear bomb 
making. John stretched my 
grasp of the chemistry, phys- 
ics, and psychic frontiers. It 
was like being on an intellec- 
tual roller coaster ride, and as 
exciting. 

The ISSSEEM (Subtle En- 
ergies) journal has recently 
reprinted some of John's old 
editorials from Analog, show- 
ing how prescient they were. 

As Tve explained endlessly, 
it svas John's long and fascinat- 
ing editorials that encouraged 
me to emulate him when I first 
started publishing in 195 1 , And 
T ve never stopped, 

Morton also mentioned 
A.E, Van Vost. who was also 
a very good friend of mine. 
He and his wife Mayne were 
superb Dianetic auditors and 
they helped me through the 
difficulties of mv first divorce. 
Well, the first is always the 
most traumatic. 

I met and had dinner with 
Azimov, but we never hit it 
off as friends. He was too 



closely surrounded by a protec- 
tive clique, and too busy loudly 
talking to he approachable. 

Arthur C Clarke, another 
of Campbell's stars, is a cold 
fusion fan. so we've been 
corresponding and he's been 
getting my journal. 

I never got to meet Hein- 
lein, but his brother is a ham 
and we've been friends for 
years. Heinlein's Stranger In 
A Strange Land is reviewed 
in my wisdom guide as one 
of the all-time great science 
fiction stories. 

L. Ron Hubbard was also 
mentioned. 1 also knew Ron 
personally and. early in the 
Dianetic days, he audited me. 
As I've mentioned before, he 
was a terrible Dianetic auditor. 

Gee, I've had an interesting 
life! So what have I done that 
millions of other people 
didn't? Mostly it was keeping 
an eye out for interesting op- 
portunities and then acting on 
them instead of staying in the 
normal rut of life — working at 
a job, family, ball games. TV. 

When Campbell published 
Hubbard's article introducing 
Dianetics in his magazine in 
1950, I read iL It made sense 
to me ? so I bought the book 
and quickly started trying this 
new mental repair system out. 
It worked so amazingly that I 
quit a very good radio job and 
went off to learn more about 
Dianetics, 

The big difference, I guess, 
is that I grab opportunities 
and most people don't. 

When I'm a guest on the 
Art Bell show, about one in a 
thousand listeners sends for 
my book catalog. 99.9% of 
the listeners thus have passed 
up the opportunity to get over 
their chronic illnesses and 
add many years to their lives. 
And then only about 20% of 
those getting my catalog or- 
der my books. 80% procrasti- 
nate and miss the opportu- 
nity, 99.98% of the listeners 
have passed up the opportunity 
of their lives. 

When I hear an interesting 
guest on the Art Bell show, 
see an article in a magazine, 
or get a clipping from a fan, I 
order the referenced book, 
read it, and follow up on the 
subject. Yes, this keeps me 
busy. But I love learning new r 



things and seeing how they 
tie in with what I've learned 
from other sources. All this 
opens endless opportunities 
to start new businesses— and 
for my writing. Maybe 
you've noticed, 

If you have any sugges- 
tions on how 1 can get more 
people off Lheir big fat duffs, 
please advise. 

Connections 

You, L and everyone else 
have allowed Congress to 

gradually increase our taxes, 
year by year, decade by de- 
cade, from the 2% of our 
salaries 90 years ago, when 
the income tax was started, to 
over 50% today, WelU it's fun 
spending money — particu- 
larly when it isn't vour money. 
So we have been electing and 
then re-electing politicians 
who have been having a great 
time spending our money, and 
then taxing us further so they 
can spend even more. 

In my editorials, I've writ- 
ten about the many unbeliev- 
ably wasteful programs we've 
allowed Congress to enacL 
Like the ~*War on Drugs/' 
which has cost trillions and 
has accomplished absolutely 
nothing. Like the "War on 
Poverty," which has only en- 
riched the government bu- 
reaucracy, and hasn't done 
spil when it comes to having 
fewer poor. 

One result of this spending 
spree has been the need for 
both parents to work just to 
make enough money to sup- 
port both their families and 
the government. Two now 
bring home what one used to. 
And this has forced parents to 
baby farm out their kids to 
day care centers and nursery 
schools, a good start toward 
dumbing them down. It also 
has put a big strain on husband 
and wite relations, contributing 
10 the escalating divorce rate. 

The family model for all of 
recorded history and from 
then on back has had the 
mother raising the children, 
while the father did the hunt- 
ing, which today w r e call 
work. Go to the library and 
read any book you can find 
about primitive cultures and 
you'll find that in every one 



the mother's main responsibil- 
ity was raising the children. 

With what we've learned 
recendy about how children 
develop, we now know enough 
so that we could provide day 
care centers which would 
help children to grow even 
better than they might at 
home — by providing re- 
sources which, so far, are not 
easily available for home 
teaching. I suspect that some 
of this vacuum will be filled 
via the Internet before Ions 
— for example, by providing 
foreign language instruction 
for children 1-3 years old, 
when they have no problem 
in learning to think and can 
speak accentlessly in almost 
any number of languages, 
and without confusing them. 

Congress has had a ball tax- 
ing and spending your money. 
They've built a huge govern- 
ment structure, and gradual I v 
taken away more and more of 
your freedoms. 

A young child needs the love 
and attention of a mother, not 
to be parked in front of a TV 
with 20 other kids and made 
to watch Sesame Street or Mr. 
Rodeers. Or the Teletuhbies. 
Young children are programmed 
to want to learn. They want to 
explore, to see; to taste, to 
feel everything. So wc pen 
them in until this annoying 
phase passes. Permanently. 

Raising children is the 
most important and difficult 
work there is for a mother 
Unfortunately, since most baby 
boomer mothers have had to 
go out and work, today's new 
parents have no mothering 
experience to pass along to 
their babies. And we wonder 
about the tsunami of attention 
deficit disorders and hyperac- 
tivity, which we "solve" with 
Valium, Ritalin, Prozac, Luvox, 
Zoloft, Paxil, Effexor, or Ser- 
zone, and never mind the side 
effects. 

I once knew a beautiful 
young girl who was raised on 
breakfasts of white toast, grape 
jelly, and coffee. By the time 
she was 22 she had to be com- 
mitted to the state hospital for 
the insane. 

Delinquents 

As I was reading Dr. 
Weston Price's Nutrition and 



Physical Degeneration, a 60- 
year-old book w r hich is still in 
print, and well deserves to be, 

my ideas about what's gone 
wrong so that kids are killing 
kids were confirmed. I bought 
the book because Dr, Price 
was a pioneer in the nutrition 
field, and Vd read his Degen- 
eration — > Regeneration many 
years ago and was very im- 
pressed by his research. He 
showed how destructive sugar 
was to the endocrine system — 
how that even a teaspoon of re- 
fined sugar would upset the 
calcium-phosphorus ratio in 
the blood, as well as the im- 
mune system, for a whole 
day, contributing to arthritis 
and other immune-system 
disorders. 

Dr. Price spent years visit- 
ing people living in remote 
areas of the world, studying 
their health and teeth. What 
he discovered was amazing; 
He found that groups living 
on their native foods were in- 
credibly healthy, lived long 
and productive lives, and had 
perfect teeth. They had no 
need for doctors or dentists. 

But then, when the outside 
world reached them and they 
were introduced to sugar and 
white flour products, their 
teeth started having cavities, 
their jaw structures changed, 
their health disintegrated, and 
they started dying at much 
earlier ages. But sugar and 
white bread are addictive, 
and the results of the diet 
change were so slow in hap- 
pening that no one noticed 
the connection. 

He visited people early in 
this century in the remote is- 
lands off the Scottish coast, 
people living in a Swiss vil- 
lage that was cut off from the 
rest of the country, South Sea 
islanders, Eskimos, and so 
on, The story was the same 
everywhere, and the photos 
in this well-illusirated book 
prove what he'd discovered. 

He also found that crime 
was virtually unknown to 
these people before sugar and 
white bread were introduced. 
A generation later kids were 
doing criminal things. Primi- 
tive tribes needed no police. 

I suspect if we could elimi- 
nate sugar and white bread 
from our American diet, the 



inner city gangs would disap- 
pear and crime would be an 
anomaly instead of the meat 
uf most newspapers and TV 
shows. But we* re so addicted 
to pie, ice cream, and candy 
that 1 doubt anything can be 
done, so we'll just have to get 
used to kids killing kids and 
slop bitching about it. We'll 
have to build more prisons 
and spend more to house the 
criminals we'ie makins. Well. 
it's good business for law- 
yers, judges, the courts, po- 
lice, prison guards, and so on 
down the line. We wouldn't 
want to put millions of law- 
yers out of business, now 
would we? Having no other 
skills, we'd have to increase 
our welfare system's cost 
Judges, at least, could go on 
TV for a while and make a 
buck. 

The 524-page 6th edition 
by Dr. Price is $20 T ISBN 0- 
87983-816-7, Keats Publish- 
ing, Box 876, New Canaan 
CT 06840. Dr. Price is not a 
great writer, but his data is 
unassailable and fascinating. 

The next time you order 
apple pie and ice cream, re- 
member that it is shortening 
your life as surely as smoking 
a cigarette, and that if you eai 
this crap before you conceive 
a child it is going to some de- 
gree to deform your child, 
physically and mentally. It's 
no wonder thai kids are going 
berserk and their grades are 
plummeting. 

Night Lights 

An article in Nature (May 
13th) reported a strong corre- 
lation IxMvwcn nearsighted 
ness in children with the use 
of night lights when they 
were babies. The same phe- 
nomenon has been observed 
in chicks, so it was no big 
surprise. 

WelL it makes sense that 
nieht lights could affect chil- 
dren. Up until Tomim Hdison 
invented the electric light 
people tended to go to sleep 
when it got dark, so this is a 
pattern which has been em- 
bedded in the deepest and 
oldest part o\ the brain, 
whats called the reptilian 



Continued on page 61 

73 Amateur Radio Today • November 1999 59 



PROPHGHTION 



Number $0 on your Feedback card 



Jim Gray W1 XU/7 
210 E Chateau Circle 
Payson AZ 85541 
Qimpeg@netzone.com] 



November 

November will exhibit vari- 
able DX condi lions on the HF 
bands, ranging from Poor lo 
Good, as shown on die calendar. 
The days ist-5lh and I Sth-22nd 
are expected to provide GOOD 
DX paths to most areas of the 
world* but signals may not be 
quite as strong as during the best 
days of September or October, 
due to the reduced E- and F-layer 
ionization at the onset of winter 
in the northern hemisphere. 

POOR conditions for DX are 
expected on the 7th and 8th and 
again on the 25th and 26th. with 
the remaining days of the month 
trending between the evtremes. 

Lr 

Those with good ears and 
good receivers will make the 
best of the FAIR conditions be- 
tween the 1 Oth- L 2th: the 15th 



and 16th: and again from the 

28th-30th, 

Atmospheric storms and other 
geophysical disturbances are also 
likely during die 7lh and 8th and 
again on die 25th and 26th, 

Happy Thanksgiving! 

December 

And Season's Greetings! 

DXers can look forward Lo 
reasonably Good (G) radio 
propagation between the 9th and 
17th: Fair (F) DX on the 19th, 
20th. 23rd, 24ih, and 28th: and 
Poor (P) or Very Poor { VP) propa- 
gation, with an up-vi ui active 
geomagnetic field and a disturbed 
ionosphere on the 3rd through ttie 
6th, and again on die 29th. The 
remaining days show trending 
conditions (sec calendar). 

Although winter DX propaga- 




November 1999 


SUN 


MON 


TUE 


WED 


THU I 


FRI 


SAT 




1 G 


2G 


3G 


4 G 


5 G-F 


6 F-P 


7 P 


a p 


9 P-F 


10 F 


11 F 


12 F 


13 F-P 


14 P-F I 


15F 


16 F 


17 F-G 


18G 


19G 


20 G 


21 G 


22 G 


23G-F 


24 F-P 


25 F 


26 P 


27 P-F 


28 F 


29 F 


30F 











lion on the HF bands above 20 
meters is generally poorer than in 
the Spring or Fait, because exci- 
tation of the E and F layers in the 
ionosphere is less, the solar flux 
index is expected to be up around 
the 200 level at this part of die 
sunspoi cycle and DX propaga- 
tion ought to be much better than 
it was last December 

Please pay particular attention 
to weather conditions December 
3rd through the 6th, and again 



on or about the 30th, when se- 
vere winter storms could occur 
in parts of the United States. 
Other geophysical disturbances 
are also possible here and else- 
where in the world during these 
three or tour days, so be prepared. 
Forecasters are undecided 
about the anticipated occur- 
rence of Cycle 23"s sunspot 
maximum. Some predict it will 
occur sometime in the year 
2000, while others including 



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* 


- 


* 


- 


20/30 


15/17 


2CV30 


- 


- 


SOUTH AFRICA 


20 30 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


■ 


- 


TS.T7 


15/17 


20/30 




W€STE 


RNU 


NITED ST 


ATES TO; 


ALASKA 


ions 


15/17 


■5*7 


:• : 


2 ? : '. 


. 


40 


40 


- 


• 




15/17 


.AflGENTITvA 


10/15 


2 r . y 


, i : 


4 


- 


- 


- 




- 




■ ' - 


It! 5 


= AUSTRALIA 


■■ :;■ 


"£.■■17 


*&-17 


20/30 


. ' -■ 


40- 


40 


40- 




23/30 


♦520 


'M' 


CANAL ZONE 


.-•CvJtl 


ao/so 


■10/20 


40/20 


4Q 


p- 


- 


30/30 


15/17 


15/17 


10/12 


to/ta 


ENGLAND 


* 


* 




- 




- 


- 


■ 


- 


15/20 


tSffiQ 


■ 






15/17 


15 


40 


■ur 


40* 


40 


40 


- 


2Q ,r 3Q 


2&'30 


20^0 


India 


iSftfl 


■ ,-■ 


- 


■ 




- 


- 


- 


?: 


' 






JAPAN 


- ' r 


15/17 


Ifift7 


20*30 


: : 


2 


40- 


40 


► 




- 


■5I7 


MEXCQ 




2W3Q 


40/20. 


40/20 


-, 






aa^so 


15'7 


ism 




t :u2 


PrilUPPlKSS 


ISOC 


15^0 




2&O0 


- 


- 






SO/30 


2030 


- 


15/17 


PUERTO RICO 


20/30 


20/30 


40/20 




40 


- 




: ' .- 


1&17 


1& r 17 


>. ■■- 


10/12 


RUSSIA (CJSJ 


■ 


- 


- 


- 


- 


*■ 


- 


» 


JQ/3C 


- 


- 


- 


SOUTH AFRICA 


20/30 


20/30 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


* 


f5/t7 


15'17 


20/15 


f east coast 


IQ 


30 


- 




L 


■ 


, 




20*30 


?U/30 




40 



r^/e /. Xovemher Bund-Time-Countrx chart. 



60 73 Amateur Radio Today * November 1999 



December 1999 


SUN 


MON 


TUE 


WED 


THU 


FR1 


SAT 








1 G-F 


2 F-P 


3 P-VP 


4 VP 


5 VP-P 


6 P 


7 P-F 


8 F-G 


9 G 


10G 


11 G 


12 G 


13G 


14 G 


15G 


16G 


17G 


18 G-F 


19 F 


20 F 


21 F-G 


22 G-F 


23 F 


24 F 


25F-G 


26 G 


27 GF 


28 F 


29F-P 


30 P 


31 P-F 





this writer — tend to expect ii 
sometime in 200 1. Contrary to 
earlier expectations (and hopes) 
among radio amateurs. Cycle 23 
is likely to rank as less than av- 
erage, or poor, compared to 
previous recent cycles. 

Nevertheless, the gradual de- 
dine of a cycle takes place over 
a period of five or six years un- 
til its sunspot minimum, so we 
Mill have a lot of good DX to 
look Forward to in Cycle 23. 

Rememher to check the hands 



above and below the suggested 
ones For possible DX surprises. 
It s often a good idea to park your 
receiver on a seeminelv unused 
frequency and just wait. A DX 
station is very likely to pop up 
before any one else hears him, and 
you can snag a good catch. 

Please note that on the Band- 
Time-Country charts. (*) indi- 
cates a possible 80 meter 
opening, and (-) or (open) indi- 
cates a difficult path- Good 
hunting! W1XU/7. 







EASTERN UNITED STATES TO: 










GMT, 




02 04 .-. 10 12 U 


'6 


re 


2C 


22 


ALASKA 


1 15 


20 










2Z 


20 








15 


ARGENTINA 




■10 


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^AUSTRALIA 


15 


2D 


20 




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20 


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mi 




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: 


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:. 










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. 


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15 


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20 


... 


20 


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15 


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PHILP C IN£S 














20 


2a 










PUERTO RICO 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 




i- 


10 


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15 


RUSSIA (CIS.) 














£0 


1; 


20 


20 






;SOUTHAF»CA 


: 


■- ' 










20 


<0 


10 


M rt 


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80 




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" 


TO 


15 



CENTRAL UNITED STATES TO: 



ALASKA 



ARGENTINA 



AUSTRAL A 



CENTRAL AM 



ENGLAND 



HAWAJF 



WDiA 



JAPAN 



MEXICO 



PHILIPPINES 



PUERTO RICO 



qUSS'AtClS) 



SOUTH AFRICA 



15 



20 



<S 



15 



4P 



15 



15 



15 



15 



15 



:: 



20 



20 



20 



40 



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20 



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20 



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40 



40* 



m 



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40* 



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20 



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20 



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to 



to 



10 



i j 



■= 



15 



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40 



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t5 



15 



T5 



WESTERN UNITED STATES TO: 



ALASKA 



ARGENTINA 



AUSTRALIA 



i,| --JRAI AM 



ENGLAND 



HAWAII 



N :■■ A 



i-^r. 



MEXICO 



PHlUP p INES 



PUERTO 3IC0 



RUSSIA tCl.S. 



SOUTH AFRICA 



EAST COAST 



-: 



15 



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15 



10 



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10 



15 



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20 



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n 



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'T- 



IS 



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to 



21 



15 



15 



Table 2* December Band-Time -Conn try chart. 



Neueh SBV DIE 

continued from page 59 

brain. You mess with deeply 
embedded life patterns at your 
risk. Oh, the many ways we are 
unknowin&Iv deforming our 
children! 

If parents were aware that 
smoking, even before con- 
ception, would to some de- 
gree deform their children, 
would that be enough to set 
them to stop? And the same 
goes for eating sugar, white 
flour products, and growth 
hormone and antibiotic-loaded 
milk and beef* These poisons 
ail affect the sperm and ova. 

"But Mommy, Tm afraid of 
the dark!" "Ail the better for 
the bogey man to sneak out 
from under your bed and get 
you, my dear." 

And if that isn't enough, if 
you'll read about melatonin, 
you'll find that even the light 
when you go to the bathroom 
at night will stop your body 
from making melatonin. When 
the light hits your eyes and 
the message goes to your sys- 
tem that it must be morning, 
so stop making melatonin. 

So what? Spring $7 for Dr. 
Reitcr's Bantam book. Mela- 
tonin, and read for yourself. 
This stuff, normalh made in 
the pineal gland, helps you 
sleep sounder, combats jet- 
lag, counteracts stress* lights 
off viruses and bacteria, plays 
a role in how long you live, 
and even helps protect you 
from cancer and heart dis- 
ease. So don't screw around 
with your melatonin factory 
by leaving a light or your TV 
on at night. You may also 
want to take some supple- 
mentary' melatonin just be- 
fore going to bed at night, 
since as you get older your 
melatonin factory gets lazy, 
contributing to your ability to 
die sooner than might other- 
wise happen. 

The Tesla Society 

The International Tesla So- 
ciety in Colorado Springs 
seemed to be doing well for 
many years, hosting some fas- 
cinating yearly conferences, I 
attended three of 'em and was 
a speaker on cold fusion de- 
velopments and atomic phys- 
ics at one. Their book shop 



was a treasure chest of inter- 
esting books. They made far 
more money on me at their 
book store during their con- 
ferences than from the con- 
ference fees. They always 
had a ham station set up in 
the hosting hotel lobby, with 
plenty of hams attending their 
conferences. Though they at- 
tracted a lot of phonies as 
speakers, they also managed 
to find some who had valuable 
information, helping me to 
make some wonderful contacts. 

So I was surprised and dis- 
appointed when the Tesla So- 
ciety stopped sending maga- 
zines and disappeared, with no 
more conferences announced. 

Then came an announce- 
ment of an Exotic Research 
conference in Seattle last 
March, listing quite an array 
of speakers. I was disap- 
pointed not to see me listed, 
but them's the breaks. I really 
enjoy talking to a room full of 
people, and the bigger the 
room, the better. Heck, I 
haven't the slightest qualms 
about talking to Art Bell's 
millions of listeners. On the 
other hand, traveling to Se- 
attle for a conference would 
take almost a week out of my 
life, putting me one more 
week behind in my work. And 
all that to talk with a couple 
hundred or so attendees. 

On the plus side I'd get to 
listen to some interesting 
talks and make some fascinat- 
ing friends. And meet some 
turkevs. 

Then an identical announce- 
ment came in for a conference 
in Mesa (AZ) next July 27- 
30th. Same cast of characters. 
Hmm. So I called and found 
that there were some postal 
problems which resulted in 
the Seattle conference being 
canceled. You can get the de- 
tails on where and who will 
be speaking about what from 
Exotic Research, Box 411, 
Stanfield AZ 85272, or call 
520-424-358 1. 

I asked what had happened 
to the Tesla Society and was 
told that they'd gone bank- 
rupt and that Dennis Lee had 
bouehi their assets. I'd won- 
dered what Dennis was doing 
these days. The last Fd heard 
he had been taking his magic 
act around the country selling 



73 Amateur Radio Today • November 1999 61 



distributorships for his non- 
existent products. My letters 
to him have gone unan- 
swered. I did enjoy the video 
of him demonstrating his "in- 
ventions,* but since they 
seemed to defy any scientific 
explanation. I was skeptical. I 
read his book which told 
about him being put in prison 
as a confidence man. Well, 
we* II see what comes of his 
Tesla Society purchase. 

Enough Hours 

This is about me. Well, 
hell. I keep asking the people 
who hear me on the An Bell 
show to tell me something 
about themselves, so 111 share 
a little of mv life with vou. 

My main problem is that 
there is so much to do and so 
few hours. There are so manv 
books on mv shelves that I 
haven't read yet, each one a 
treasure of information and 
ideas. Each one an adventure 
of the mind. Then there arc 
the Dilbert books, which have 
me roaring with laughter. 

Fve got thousands of CDs 
that I want to listen to over 
and over again. The thrill of 
the Gotischalk Tarantella, the 
incredible beauty of Delias' 
music. Nirvana, The OlTen- 
bach cello concerto, which I" ve 
only played a thousand times 
so far, Talk about industrial 
strength stress reduction! 

Oh, how 1 wish you could 
share with me the books, the 
music, and my walks in our 
north pasture, where every 
few days in the spring brings 
out a new array of wild flou - 
ers. The excitement of seeing 
the wild life — a dozen deer in 
our front yard, a couple of 
dozen wild turkeys going me- 
thodically across the pasture I 
can see over my Macintosh as 
I write, the wolf I spied from 
my bedroom window the 
other morning. Pheasants, rac- 
coons, bears, elk, coyotes, 
buzzards, we've got 'em all. 

There's the fun of writing, t 
have this need to teach, so I 
research things that interest 
me and then write about 
them — to share with you 
what Fve learned, I try to 
make it entertainino. as 
teaching should always be. 
Oh, how I remember the 
struggle I had to stay awake 



in class as a teacher droned 
on. And the day the professor 
pointed 10 one of the students, 
"You! Wake up that man next 
to vou!" He answered, "You 
wake him up. >oli put him to 
sleep/* which got a huge laugh 
from the bored students and al- 
most killed the professor with 
apoplexy. 

Plant Growth 

With the development of a 
rotary transducer in 1966, it 

became possible to measure 
plant growth to an accuracy 
of ± 0.001 inches. This made 
it possible to much more ac- 
curately measure the effect of 
thought on plant growth. The 
experiment was set up grow- 
ing some rye seeds. The strip 
recorder showed that they 
were growing at a steady 
0,00625 inches an hour. Olga 
Worrall, a well-known psychic 
who was 600 miles away, was 
called and asked to speed up 
the growth at a spec i tic time. 
The strip had been steady un- 
til that time, when it suddenly 
went to 0.0525 inches an 
hour! The growth gradually 
slowed down over the next 48 
hours, hut it never went back 
to its original rate. Otga's 
thoughts accelerated the rye 
growth by eight times, just by 
concent rating her thoughts on 
it remotely. 

If thoughts can affect plants 
that powerfully, I wonder 
what they can do for or to 
humans? Maybe there's more 
to voo-doo and witch doctors 
than just imagination and 
suggestion. 

But you don't have to be a 
psychic to demonstrate the 
power of thought to influence 
plant growth. You can do it in 
your kitchen with some seeds 
planted in plastic cups of dirt. 
Your positive thoughts will 
accelerate the growth and 
your negative thoughts will 
slow it down. 

Scientific Progress 

Science lias progressed, 
despite the best efforts of the 
scientific establishment to 
prevent it. At least two Nobel 
laureates have admitted that 
they lied about their proposed 
research work on their grant 
applications because they knew 



the peer review process 
would never allow them to 
pursue their real goals. 

This peer review process 
has prevented most truly in- 
novative papers from being 
published in the scientific 
journals. An article in the 
JAMA pointed out that "... 
some of the most distin- 
guished of scientists may dis- 
play sophisticated behavior 
that can only be destrihed as 
pathological.'* 

History supports the blind- 
ness of scientists when faced 
with something new, from 
Copernicus to Galileo, Dar- 
win, Mendel, Ohm, Young, 
Harvey, Hemming, Wegener, 
Semmeiweis, Pasteur, Lister, 
and so on. 

The tomato was shunned in 
America for over 200 years 
after it was accepted in Eu- 
rope because "everyone knew" 
it was poisonous. 

The scientific establishment 
was horror-struck when Pons 
and Fleischmann, two re- 
spected electrochemists, held 
a press conference to an- 
nounce cold fusion instead of 
submitting their paper to a 
peer-reviewed journal. Not 
being total dummies, P&F 
knew they'd just be wasting 
precious months going the 
peer review route, there being 
no peers in this new solid- 
state microfusion field, and 
the reaction they'd discov- 
ered was well known to be 
totally impossible. 

When one of the pioneers 
in this new field, distin- 
guished professor Ed Storms, 
opined that the transmutation 
of elements was involved in 
the generation of the excess 
heat, his colleagues at Texas 
A&M ganged up and tried to 
have him fired for suggesting 
such heresy. Witch burning is 
apparently still popular in 
Texas. 

Magnets & Healing 

I had an interesting letter 
from reader Rod Summit thai 
I want to share with you. Rod 

was in a car accident several 
years ago which damaged his 
neck and back and left him in 
constant pain, making it ex- 
tremely difficult to sleep with- 
out heavy narcotic medica- 
tion. Then he heard about 



magnetic mattress pads and 
tried one. Within a few days 
he was steeping without pain 

Continued on page 64 



June Contest Winners 
Grand Prize Winner 

John Doug us N0ISL 

Runners-Up 

l.TonyCapelleNITC 
2. Bob Kerry NY 1Y 
3.WilliamThimNlQVQ 
4. Ted MelinoskyKlBV 
5.WilliamMillcrJr„MA 

6. Gary Devlin N2VIP 

7. Don Stoddard N8LNE 

8. A. Alhanowicz KU4HN 

9. D.S. Burke W5DSB 

1 0. Frank Lauri N2DC 

11. John W. Bav. Jr. N3ULD 

1 2. Shane Brady WB2WPM 

13. David Freeman W40LA 

14. B,Arlman KB3CLB 

15. L. Edeistcin W4JEM 

16. J. Siomkajlo N3QJM 

17. George Gaskill KD9EN 

18. M. Marlineau WlAYC 

19. Milt Forsberg K9QZI 

20. T. Hinkelman N8JKR 

21. Mike Kitchen N8QES 

22. Steve Adams KF4NAT 

23. Karl Heil WD9BGA 

24. W. Conlon K9KOD 

25. Bill Fairley WA4TCC 

26. J. Gu/ewicz W4IDC 

27. Joklahr Keller WD8JPF 

28. Sidney Goeel W2FUR 

29. E. Sinclair KD4JUH 

30. R. Mollenijne WH0KKC 

31. Max Holland W4MEA 

32. Ed Rich W2SLW 

33. Mike Leahan N9PQK 

34. Tay Tamholas KZ3U 

35. J. Schnieders N91YI 

36. Bill Vokac K9BV 

37. J. Shaw KM5AD 

38. Brian Lecuyer AA2QU 

39. John Orton WA6BOB 

40. G. Hopper KB7WSD 
41.GregSavi]leN7IDB 

42. Ervin Sly W6ERV 

43. David Nagel W9EXJ 

44. M. KazJauskas WA2NGT 

45. Tony Padavich N9YPN 

46. W. "Jim" Poulos WB6ZJA 

47. H. Landsberg WB6MEU 

48. Stan P(idgerVE3DNR 

49. Chris D. Hill AB6FA 

50. Georec White KB 1NP 



62 73 Amateur Radio Today • November 1 999 







Here are some of my hooks which 
can change your life (if you'll let 
*em). If the idea of being healthy, 
wealthy and wise interests you, start 
rending. Yes, you can he all that, hut 
only when you know the secrets 
" hich I've spent a lifetime uncover- 
ing- 

The Bioelec trifle r Handbook This 
explains how to build or buy ($155) a 
little electrical gadget thai can help 
clean the blood of any vims, microbe, 
parasite, fungus or yeasL The process 
was discovered by scientists at the 
Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 
quickly patented, and hushed up. It's 
curing AIDS, hepatitis C, and a hunch 
of other serious illnesses. The circuit 
can be built for under $20 from the in- 
structions in the book. SIO (01 j 
The Secret Guide to Wisdom This 
is a review of around a hundred books 
that will help you change your life. No, 
) don't sell these books. They're on a 
wide range of subjects and will help 
to make you a very interesting person. 
Wait" II you see some of the gems 
you've missed reading. S5 (02) 
The Secret Guide to Wealth: Just as 
with health, you'll find that you have 
been brainwashed by "the system'* into 
a pattern of life mat will keep you from 
ever making much money and having 
the freedom to travel and do what you 
want. E explain how anyone can gee a 
dream job with no col lege, no resume, 
and even without any experience. I 
explain how you can get someone to 
happily pay you to learn what you need 
to know to start your own business. S5 
(03 ) 

The Secret Guide to Health: Yes, 
there really is a secret to regaining your 
health and adding 30 to 60 years of 
healthy living to your life. The answer is 
simple, but it means making some dif- 
ficult lifestvle changes. Will vou be 

m mm • 

skiing die slopes of Aspen wiih me 
when you're 90 or doddering around 
a nursing home? Or pushing up dai- 
sies? No, Vm not selling any health 
products. S5 (04) 

My WWII Submarine Adventures: 
Yes, I spent from 1 943- 1 945 on a sob- 
marine, right in the middle of the war 
with Japan- We almost got sunk several 
times, and twice 1 was in the right place 
at the right rime to save the boat. 
What's it really Like to be depth 
charged? And what's the daily life 
aboard a submarine like? How about 
the Amelia Earhan inside story ?If 
you* re near Mobile, please visit the 
Drum. £5(10) 

Travel Diaries: You can travel amaz- 
ingly inexpensively - once you know 



the ropes. Enjoy Sherry and my budget 
visits to Europe, Russia, and a bunch 
of other interesting places. How r about 
a first class flight to Munich, a rented 
Audi, driving to visit Vienna. Krakow 
in Poland (and the famous salt mines), 
Prague t back to Munich, and the first 
class flight home for two, ail for under 
Sl t 000, Yes, when you know how- you 
can travel inexpensively, and still stay 
in first class hotels. S5 < 1 1) 
Wayne's Caribbean Adventures: 
More budgei travel stories - where I 
visit the hams and scuba dive most of 
the islands of the Caribbean. Like the 
special Liai fare which allowed us to 
visit 11 countries in 21 days, with me 
diving all but one of the islands, 
Guadeloupe, where the hams kept me 
too busy with parties, $5(12) 
Cold Fusion Overview: This is both 
a brief history of cold fusioa which I 
predict will be one of the largest in- 
dustries in the world in the 2 1 si cen- 
lury, plus a simple explanation of how 
and why it works. This new field is 
going to generate a whole new bunch 
of billionaires, just as the personal 
computer industry did. $5 (20} 
Cold Fusion Journal: They laughed 
when i predicted the PC industry 
growth in 1975. PCs are now the Uiird 
largest industry in the world, Hie cold 
fusion ground floor is Mill wide open, 
but then that might mean gmng up 
watching ball games. .Sample: $10(22). 
Julian Schwinger: A Nobel laureate's 
talk about cold fusion — confirming its 
validity, $2 (24) 

Improving State Government: Here 
are 24 wa\ s that state governments can 
cut expenses enormously: while pro- 
viding far better service. 1 explain how 
any government bureau or department 
can be gotten to cut its expenses by at 
least 50% in three years and do ii co- 
operatively and enthusiastically. 1 ex- 
plain how, by applying a new technol- 
ogy, the state can make it possible to 
provide all needed services without 
having to levy any taxes at all t Read 
the book, run for your legislature, and 
lefs get busy making this country wortc 
like its founders wanted it to, Don't 
leave mis for "someone else" to do. $5 
r30) 

Mankind's Extinct inn Predictions: If 
any one of the experts who have writ- 
ten books predicting a soon-io-come 
catastrophe which will virtually wipe 
us all out is right we're in trouble. In 
this book I explain about the various 
disaster scenarios, from Nostradamus, 
who says the poles will soon shift, wip- 
ing out 97% of mankind, to Sai Baba, 
who has recendy warned his followers 
to get out of Japan and Australia before 
December 6th this year. The worst pan 
of these predictions is the accuracy 
record of some of the experts. Will it be 
a pole shift, a new ice age t a massive 
solar flare, a comet or asteroid, a 
bioterrorist attack, or even Y2K? Fm 
getting ready* how r about you? $5 (31) 



Moondoggle: After reading Rene's 
book, NASA Mooned America, I read 
everything I could find on our Moon 
landings, 1 watched the videos, looked 
carefully at the photos, read the astro- 
nauts 1 biographies, and talked with 
some of my readers who worked for 
NASA. This book cites 25 good rea- 
sons I believe the whole Apollo pro- 
gram had to have been faked. $5 (30) 
Classical Music Guide: A list of 100 
CDs which will provide you with an 
outstanding collection of the finest 
classical music ever written. This is 
what you need to help you reduce 
stress. Classical music also raises 
youngsters* IQs, helps plants grow 
faster, and will make you healthier. Just 
waif 11 you hear some of Gotsehalk's fabu- 
lous music' S5(33) 

Tht? Radar Coverup: Is police radar 
dangerous? Ross Adey K6U1, a world 
authority, confirms the dangers of ra- 
dio and magnetic fields, $3 (34) 
Three Gatto Talks: A prize -winning 
leacher explains what's wrong with 
American schools and why our kids are 
not being educated. Why are Swedish 
youngsters, who Stan school at 7 yean 
of age, leaving our kid> in the du^t? 
Our kids are intentionally being 
dumbed down by our school system 
— the least effective and most expen- 
sive in the world. S5 (35) 
Aspartame: a_k.a. NutraSweet, the 
stuff in diet drinks, etc., can cause all 
kinds of serious health problems. Mul- 
tiple sclerosis, for one. Read all about 
it three pamphlets for a buck. (38 ) 
One Hour CW: Using this sneaky 
method even you can learn the Morse 
Code in one hour and pass that dumb 
5wpm Tech- Plus ham test, 55 (40) 
Code Tape (T5): This tape will teach 
you the letters, numbers and punctuation 
you need to know i! you .ire gnim: on to 
learn the code at 13 or 20 wpm. $5 (41) 
Code Tape (113): Once you know the 
code for the letters (41 J you can go 
immediately to copying 13 wpm code 
(using my system). This should only 
take two or three days, $5 (42) 
Code Tape (T20): Start right out at 20 
wpm and master it in a weekend for 
your Extra Class license. 55 (43) 






Wayne Talks Not at Dayton: This is 
a 90 -minute tape of the talk Td have 
given at the Dayton, if invited, 55 (50) 
Wayne Talks at Tump a: This is the 
talk I gave at the Tampa Global Sci- 
ences conference. 1 cover cold fusion, 
amateur radio, health, books you 
should read and so on. S5 (5 1) 
St Million Sales Video: How to gen- 
erate extra million in sales using PR. 
This will be one of the best investments 
your business ever made- S43 (52 ) 
Reprints of My Editorials from 73. 
Grist 1: 50 of my best non-ham-ortentcd 
editorials from before 1997. S5 (71) 
Grist II: 50 more choice non-ham edi- 
torials from before 1997 .$5 (72) 

1 997 Editorials: 1 48 pages. 2 1 6 edito- 
rials discussing health, ideas for new 
businesses, exciting new books V ve dis- 
covered wavs to cure our country's 
more serious problems, flight 8CMX the 
Oklahoma City bombing, more Moon 
madness* and so on, $10 (74) 

1 998 Editorials: 1 68 pages that' 11 give 
you lots of controversial things to talk 
about on the air. $10 (75) 

Silver Wire: With two 3" pieces of 
heavy pure silver wire + three 9V bat- 
teries you can make a thousand dol- 
lars 1 worth of silver colloid. What do 
you do with it? It does what the antibi- 
otics do. but germs can't adapt to it. 
Use it to get rid of genus on food for 
skin fungus, warts, and even to drink. 
Read some books on the uses of silver 
coBoid, it's like magic, $15 (80) 
Wayne's Bell Saver Kit. The cable 
and instructions enabling you to in- 
expensively tape An Bell W60BB 1 s 
nightly 5-hr radio talk show. S5 (83) 
StnfFl didn't wri t e^ but vo u need; 
NASA Mooned America: Rene 
makes an air-tight case that NASA 
faked the Moon landings. This book 
will convince even you. $25 (90) 
Last Skeptic of Science: This is 
Rene's book where he debunks a 
bunch of accepted scientific beliefs - 
such as the ice ages, the Earth being 
a magnet, the Moon causing the tides, 
etc. $25(91) 

Dark Moon; 56 K pages of carefully 
researched proof that the Apollo Moon 
landings were a hoax. $35 (92) 



Wayne Green 

Box 416, Hancock NH 03449 



Name 



Call 



Address 



City-State-Zip 

Use the nurnhe™ ui the brackets or copy page and mark the tvifob, you want, Add S3 s/h per total order 

in US- SfiCaiu S 1 foreign 

Order total: USS Phone ffor CC oaderi> 



NfOViia for orders over Si 0_ #_ 



Expire 



* ww waywgreeo-cnm * phone orders 60J-525-4747 - fcxi 603-583-3205 * wZftfd^toLoom 
Yes! Put me down for a year of 73 for only $25 (a steal*. Canada USS32. Foreign US$44 by sea_ 
Td like lo get mure rem mice into my dreary life so send me yaw Ho w-To- Dance Videos catalog. 
1 need some industrial stiengtb stress reduction so send me your Adventure* In Music CD catalog 

Allow 4 week* for delivery except foreign, though we try to get mos t orde rs shipped in a day or two. 

73 Amateur Radio Today • November 1999 63 



__ 



Number 64 an your Feedback card 



Barter 'n' Buy 



Turn your old ham and computer gear into cash now. Sure, you can 
wait for a hamfest to try and dump it; but you know you'll get a far 
more realistic price if you have it out where 100,000 active ham po- 
tential buyers can see it, rather than the few hundred local hams who 
come by a flea market table. Check your attic, garage, cellar and 
closet shelves and get cash for your ham and computer gear before 
it's too old to sell. You know you're not gofng to use it again, so why 
leave it for your widow to throw out? That stuff isn't getting any 
younger! 

The 73 Flea Market, Barter "iV Buy. costs you peanuts (almost)— 
comes to 35 cents a word for individual (noncommercial!) ads and 
S 1.00 a word (ot commercial ads. Don't plan on telling a long story. 
Use abbreviations, cram it in. But be honest. There are plenty of 
hams who love to fix things, so if it doesn't work, say so. 
Make your list, count the words, including your call address and phone 
number. Include a check or your credit card number and expiration. If 
you re placing a commercial ad, include an additional phone number 
separate from your ad* 

This is a monthly magazine, not a daHy newspaper, so figure a couple 
months before the action starts; then be prepared. If you get too many 
calls, you priced it low, If you don't get many calls, too high. 
So get busy. Blow the dust off, check everything out, make sure it still 
works right and maybe you can help make a ham newcomer or re- 
tired old timer happy with that rig you re not using now. Or you might 
get busy on your computer and put together a list of small gear/parts 
to send to those interested? 

Send your ads and payment to: 73 Magazine , Barter V 
Buy, 70 Hancock RtL, Peterborough NH 03458 and get set 
for the phone calls. The deadline for the March 2000 classified ad 
section is January 10, 2000. 



President Clinton probably doe sn 1 
have a copy of Tormet's Electronics 
Bench Reference but you should. 
Check it out at [www, ohio.net/ 
-rtormet/index.htm]— over 100 
pages of circuits, tables t RF design 
information, sources, etc, 

BNB530 

Copies - 73 Magazine Nov. '63 thru 
Dec, 78, QST Magazine Nov, '63 
thru Dec. 78, Ham Radio Magazine 
Mar. "68 thru July 79. CQ Magazine 
Dec. '$4 thru Mar 79. S2.00 Each 
Copy plus shipping, W,L. Brown, 
Box 541, SulfivarVs Island SC 29482. 
Tel. (643) 883-3574. BNB73 

RF TRANSISTORS TUBES 
2SC2879. 2SC1971. 2SC1972, 
MRF247 P MRF455, MB8719 H 
2SC1307, 2SC2029, MRF454 t 
2SC3133, 4CX25QB, 12DQ6, 
6KG6A, etc, WESTGATE, 1-800- 
213-4563. BNB6000 

Cash for Collins: Buy any Collins 
Equipment. Leo KJ6HL Tel./FAX 

(310) 670-6969. [radioleo^earthlink. 
net]. BNB425 

MAHLON LOQMIS, INVENTOR OF 

RADIO, by Thomas Appfeby (copy- 
right 1967). Second printing avail- 
able from JOH AN K.V. SVANHOLM 
N3RF, SVANHOLM RESEARCH 
LABORATORIES, P.O. Box 81, 
Washington DC 20044. Please send 
$25.00 donation with $5.00 for S&H. 

BNB420 



METHOD TO LEARN MORSE 
CODE FAST AND WITHOUT 
HANGUPS Johan N3RF, Send 
S1.00 & SASE, SVANHOLM RE- 
SEARCH LABORATORIES, RO. 
Box 81 . Washington DC 20044 USA. 

BNB421 

Great New Reference Manual with 
over 100 pgs of P/S, transistor, radio, 
op-amp, antenna designs, coil wind- 
ing tables, eto. See detaiis at [www.onio. 
net -rtormet index, htm] or send check 
or M.O. for SI 9.95 + $2.00 P&H to 
RMT Engineering, 6863 Buffham Ro\. 
Seville OH 44273. BNB202 

QSL CARDS. Baste Styles; Black 
and White and Color Picture Cards: 
Custom Printed. Send 2 stamps for 
samples and literature, RAUM S. 
8617 Orchard Rd,, Coopersburg PA 
16036. Phone or FAX (215) 679- 
7238, BNB519 

WANTED: High capacity 1 2 volt so- 
lar panels for repeater, [kk4ww# 
falrs.org] or (540) 763-2321. 

BNB2630 

COLLOIDAL SILVER GENERA- 
TOR! Why buy a ll box of batteries" 
for hundreds of dollars'? Current regu- 
lated, AC powered, fully assembled 
with #12 AWG silver electrodes. 
$74,50. Same, but DC powered. 
$54.50. Add $2.50 shipping, Thomas 
Miller, 962 Myers Parkway, Ashland 
OH 44805. BNB342 



ASTRON power suppty, brand-new w/ 
warranty. RS20M $99, RS35M $145, 
RS50M S209, RS70M $249. Web: 
[www.aventrade.com]. Call for other 
models, (626) 286-011&, BNB411 

HEATHKIT COMPANY is selling 
photocopies of most Healhktt manu- 
als. Only authorized source lor copy* 
right manuals. Phone: (616) 925- 
5899, 8-4 ET, BNB964 

"MORSE CODE DECIPHERED", 
Simple, elegant, inexpensive, com- 
prehensive, logical, easy! Email 
[judlind@earthlink.net]. BNB428 

Electricity. Magnetism, Gravity, 
The Big Bang. New explanation of 
basic forces of nature in this 91 -page 
oook covering early scientific theories 
and exploring latest controversial con- 
dusions on their relationship to a uni- 
fied field theory. To order, send cneck 
or money order for $16*95 to: Ameri- 
can Science Innovations. PO Box 1 55, 



Qarrngton OH 43915. Web site for 
other products [rrttp: www. asi_2O0a 
com]. BNB100 

COLD FUSION! - FUEL CELLI - 

ELECTRIC BICYCLE! Each edu- 
eatonal kit (Basic - $99.95. Deluxe - 
S19995, Information - $9.95.) CATA- 
LOG - $5.00. ELECTRIC AUTOMO- 
BILE BOOK - $19.95. KAYLOR-KIT, 
POB 1550ST, Boulder Creek CA 
95006-1550. (831 ) 336-2300. 

BNB128 

TELEGRAPH COLLECTOR'S 
PRICE GUIDE: 250 pictures prices. 
512 postpaid. ART1FAX BOOKS. Box 

68. Maynard MA 01754. Telegraph 
Museum: [http://wltpHCom]. BNBH3 

Ham Radio Repair, Quality work- 
manship. All Brands, Fast Service. 
Affordable Electronics. 7110 E, 
Trromas Rd.. Scottsdale. AZ 85251. 
Call 4S0-97O-0963. or E-mail [HAM 
SERVICE@AOL COM]. BNB 427 



Never shy die 

continued from page 62 

mid was able to put his pain 
pills aside. 

I've seen ads for the pads, 
but being a skinflint, and not 
sure what the benefits might 
be for me. I haven't invested in 



one* I don't have any pains 
and I have no problem in going 
lo sleep when I lie down, day or 
night. And I worry about mag- 
nets, since one pole can increase 
blood flow and the other restrict 
it Do I want to lake a chance on 
messing up something thafs 
working okay now? 



If you're a No-Code Tech. and you're having fun operat- 
ing, tell us about it! Other No-Code Techs will enjoy read- 
ing about your adventures in ham radio — and well pay 
you for your articles. Yes, lots of nice clear photos, please. 
Call Joyce Sawtelle at 800-274-7373 to get a copy of "How 
to Write for 73 Magazine." 



A GREAT gift idea for yourself, your ham friend(s) f 

or your child's school library 

is a subscription to 73 Magazine ♦., only $24,97! 

Caff 800-274-7373 or write to 70 Hancock Road, 

Peterborough NH 03458 



UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE"* £M»mciii Of Owtimlup, Management, iind Circulation (Required by J9 
U.S.C. 36S5KII PuMkatJtmTKle; ^ Amateur Radio Today |2) Publication No I K152-252^ (3] Filing Dure; QM0- 
W- (A) Issue Frequency: MunUity (5> No, uf haves Published Annually; 12 ffti Annual Sutv-aiplion P*k«:tt+i97 
(7 1 Complete Mill tin' Addrest: 70 Hancock. RumI Petetttfniuiih, HillihortiUjtlt Oy.. NH Gj4S8*T 107 ifr Compter 
Aiktre^ of HezAjifcincri or Central Brumes* Olfwt of Pubiiaber < N« Pftuwf i ?u Haoenct Rosid, P«ertCCWgJt N H 
0345*- 1 Hf7 <9} Foil Nodes and Compile Mailing; Addneuei ol PuWiiher. Ediliv. and Manafine Ektsar Wiynr 
Gi*e*70 Hmwi Etiud. PHfrtonwjn, NH QJ45I Wajn- Gree* 70 Uncock RouL Fttnfe*iw«k NH BWH; Fl 
ManurL 70 Hmroca Road. PAftavifiL NH 0*»*» ( 10> Qi*oa Shibranui W»> Lad_ PO Ek^i ftO, Hb^kL NH 
tf3-Mv, Wivik Grwu. PO. Box 60, Hncoct NH (B449 1 1 1 r Knonn Bondholdcry Mon^agcci, and DuVr Sccumy 
Hot Jen OwiTirng nt KiddniE 1 Percent ut More of TihjiJ Amounl pf Bnod^ Mon^aj;^. or Of her Seiuziues: None <H) 
*Fiv L'imipteN.i I uprofit orjjaui:*tJans i \\h Publication Nwtie. 7 ? Ani-dew Radio Today i!4j Issue Di(e far 
CJJTuliilLuii Data Below; March 1^49 (llh Estcm jllli! Naiure of Circulation:. Averii^e Net. t\i|iiL'a EacJi Issue Durinp 
PreL'tfLlin^ 12 Moulin; Actual No. CcipJea of SlnaJe E.^ue PubllsJusJ Nearesl (0 riling Dill ui Hrjta] N'u Copt/til <Net 
Pti-Hi Hutu 2S ^ V ]5 r U0Q ib> Psild nd/or rettu^ied Circulation * d i Sales Thnn$- L;v, ,-r- ±l.j. Catrten. SutH 
VetkL-t * mi Counter Silo i Not Mailed! M34 9*» i2i Pud « itequesied Mail Sulucripriafa itncliMie A&vtmxti' 
Prod Copie*fEajel>an|ie Cep«* f M-"ll. UJQ5 iCl Tiiul PajJ jjsdA» Requeue*! Clfcnaariofl (Swn of l5b(L) and 
1 ft " 1 4J& 1 1 di Ft« Okimfaiakn by Mad i Simple*, Gomplimauty* md Otbci Fnxr 2t3: 1M3 it) Free 

DuimNflKB Osti:de the Mail Camen or Oiher Meitii ■ it ill Toiai Free DtatfarJOM (San of l5d jex! I * t > 215, 
21? i fi Toul Dutn>iuan i Sum of 13c and I5f> 20*430; U_5»6 ihi Copa^. Net DMtclmied 1 1 1 Office Ose. Leftover*. 
Spotted IQ^ 261 (2l Return fmm MewaAgenti ^9Q: lSlilj Total iSumoll?c. I5b&\ and I Sh*2| i2S.3Z3. 1X000 
Pcrcera Paid and/iv Kequesietl tirtulaiion 05c/l^ a 100 » *Wi: W*- rlbj Thin Smiemftit of Ownership will hc 
pritsied in Hie Noveniher "99 iuue <if Itu* publiuuti.iL 1 1 : i Situ in mt lhJ Tiik- nJ kdit.n, PuWlilter, SusLni/ij Man- 
a|L'r. pr Owner Wiiyne <lrsen Date: fJ9- 30-99. I certify Ums tUl Ijifinmuilon funmlied on du» foou h hul jud com- 
plete t understand th.it myiMii; *bu i"uniis2iv!s. l.ihc m uusLu j.iiiu-i iiuurtiiiuium mi thii form nr who ohuls uuiierial or 
irtfcirnuukm requeued on the lorrn uu\ fe fubjeci ro crimirml loix'Uuit, tim-iiutin$f:nei and smpris&anmtti and/or 
dvtl iinmm {faefatfaj nwliipk immif * *mJ ?ml prmki£t}. 



$4 73 Amateur Radio Today • November 1999 



JRC 




160-10 Meters PLUS 6 Meter Transceiver 




Fifteen 



reasons why your next HF 
ver should be a JST-245. . , 



1 All-Mode Operation (SSB,CW,AM,AFSK.FM) on all HF amateur 
bands and 6 meters. JST-145 r same as JST-245 but without 6 
meters and butfNn antenna tuner. 

* JST-145 COMING SOON * 

2 MOSFET POWER AMPLIFIER • Final PA utilizes RF MOSFETs 
to achieve low distortion and high durability. Rated output is 10 
to 150 watts on all bands including 6 meters. 

3 AUTOMATIC ANTENNA TUNER * Auto tuner included as 
standard equipment. Tuner settings are automatically stored 
in memory for fast QSY. 

4 MULTIPLE ANTENNA SELECTION • Three antenna connec- 
tions are user selectable from front panel. Antenna selection can 
be stored in memory, 

5 GENERAL COVERAGE RECEIVER -100 kHz-30 MHz. plus 48- 
54 MHz receiver . Electronically tuned front-end littering, quad- 
FET mixer and quadruple conversion system {triple conversion 
for FM) results In excellent dynamic range (>100dB) and 3rd order 
ICP of +20dBm. 

6 IF BANDWiDTH FLEXIBILITY • Standard 2A kHz fitter can be 
narrowed continuously to 800 Hz with variable Bandwidth Control 
(BWC). Narrow SSB and CW filters for 2nd and 3rd IF optional. 

7 QRM SUPPRESSION * Other interference rejection features 
include Passband Shift (PBS) T dual noise blanker, 3-step RF atten- 
uation, IF notch filter, selectable AGC and all-mode squelch, 



8 NOTCH TRACKING -Once tuned, the IF notch filter will track the 
offending heterodyne ( *• 1 Khz) if the VFO frequency is changed. 

9 DOS PHASE LOCK LOOP SYSTEM * A single-crystal Direct 
Digital Synthesis system is utilized for very low phase noise, 

1 CW FEATURES* Full break-tn operation, variable CW pitch, built 
in electronic keyer up to 60 wpm. 

DUAL VFOs • Two separate VFOs for split-frequency operation. 
Memory registers store most recent VFO frequency, mode, band- 
width and other important parameters for each band. 

1 2 200 MEMORIES ■ Memory capacity of 200 channels, each of 
which store frequency, mode, AGC and bandwidth. 

13 COMPUTER INTERFACE • Built-in RS-232C interface for 
advanced computer applications. 

I 4 ERGQNOMIC LAYOUT * Front panel features easy to read color 
LCD display and thoughtful placement of controls for ease of oper- 
ation. 

15 HEAVY-DUTY POWER SUPPLY * Built-in switching power 
supply with "silent" cooling system designed for continuous 
transmission at maximim output. 




fiopon Radio Co.,J£d. 



430 Park Ave. 2nd Floor New York, NY 10022 Phone: (212) 355-1180 Fax: (212) 319-5227 

CIRCLE 159 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



K^dOx*. ,»_ 








^ 




PC no! 
included 



The Kachina 505DSP 
Computer Controlled HF 
Transceiver After twenty years 
of building commercial 
transceivers in Arizona, Kachina 
has decided the time is right for a 
new approach to amateur radio. 
The Kachina 505DSP is nothing 
short of a revolution in HF 
transceivers. 

Why Use Knobs if You Have 
Windows? The old-fashioned 
front panel has becpme too 
cluttered to be useful Too many 
knobs, (oo many buttons. 
Kachina's 505DSP transceiver 
connects to your computer's 
senaf port and is completely 
controlled under Windows™ With 
optional cables, the radio may be 
remotely located up to 75 feet 
away from your computer 
Imagine combining a state-of- 



the-art DSP transceiver with the 
processing power and graphics 
capabilities of your PC and youll 
soon wonder why alt radios 
aren't designed this way. Why 
settle for a tiny LCD display 
when your computer monitor can 
Simultaneously show band 
activity, antenna impedance, 
heat sink temperature. SWR. 
f onward and/or reflected power 
and a host of other information? 

16/24 Bit DSP/DDS 
Performance In addition to 
100% computer control, the 
Kachina 505DSP offers 
exceptional 16/24 bit DSP/DDS 
performance. IF stage DSR 
"brick^wair digital filtering, 
adaptive notch filters and digital 
noise reduction, combined with 
low in-band IMD and high 
signaMo-noise ratio, produce an 



excellent sounding receiver. 
Sophisticated DSP technology 
achieves performance levels 
unimaginable in the analog 
world. The transmitter also 
benefits from precise 16/24 bit 
processing. Excellent carrier and 
opposite-sideband suppression 
is obtained using superior 
phasing-method algorithms. The 
RF compressor will add lots of 
punch to your transmitted signal 
without adding lots of bandwidth, 
and the TX equalizer will allow 
you to tailor your transmitted 
audio for more highs or lows. 



The Kachina 
505DSP Computer 
Controlled 
Transceiver 

eat u res: 

■ Works with any Computer 
Running Windows 3.1. 95 
or NT | 

■ Covers all Amateur HF ' 
Bands plus General 
Coverage Receiver 

■ IF Stage 1 6/24 Bit Digital 
Signal Processing (DSP) 

■ II DSP Bandpass Filter 
Widths from 100 Hz to 3.5 
kHz (6 kHz in AM Mode) 

■ Band Activity Display with 
"Point and Click" 
Frequency Tuning 

■ On-screen Antenna 

|r "Smith" Chart, Logging 
Software and Help Menus 

■ Automatic Frequency i 

Calibration from WWV or i 
Other External Standard 

■ "Snapshot* Keys for J 
Instant Recall of 
Frequencies and Settings 

i Optional Internal Antenna 
Tuner 



Seeing is Believing 

American-made and designed, 
and able to stand on its own 
against the world's best, the 
505DSP is bound to set the 
standard for all that follow. But 
don't take our word for it. 
Visit our website at 
http://www.kachina-az.com 
for detailed specifications, to 
download a demo version of our 
control software, or to see a 
current list of Kachina dealers 
displaying demonstration models 
in their showrooms. 



KACHINA!! 

COMMUNICATIONS, INC. 

P.O. Box 1949. Cottonwood, Arizona 86326. U.S.A. 
Fax: (520) 634-8053 Tel' (520) 634-7828 
E-Mail: sales @ kachina-az.com 



change